Macrostructure of the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in the River Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Graduated from Faculty of Veterinary, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


The autonomic nervous system consists of a vast range of nerves and ganglions. Anatomical studies have demonstrated that the sympathetic innervations of the head and neck are affected by the neurons that ramify from the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG). The CCG is the end of the sympathetic cervical trunk, which runs with the vagal nerve during its cervical course. In this study sixteen adult (2 - 5 year) river buffalo of both sexes (eight male, eight female) weighing around 250 - 450 kg were dissected to investigate the weight, situation and arrangement of nerve branches of the cranial cervical ganglion bilaterally. The ganglions showed a fusiform shape and reddish in color. The cranial cervical ganglion covered by the digastricus muscle. It lies in dorsal region of the base of epiglottic cartilage, ventromedial to tympanic bulla and ventrally to atlantic fossa, and medial of the occipital artery. This study showed that the cranial cervical ganglions in river buffalo were well-developed structure. The main branches of cranial cervical ganglion included the internal carotid, external carotid and jugular nerves.