Serological study on the presence of some alpha-herpesviruses in goats of ‎northern Anatolia, Turkey

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Veterinary Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey‎

2 Department of Veterinary Experimental Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey‎

3 Department of Veterinary Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey

4 Department of Preventive Medicine and ‎Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Gadarif, Al Qadarif‏,‏‎ Sudan‎

5 Department of Biometry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey


The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of caprine herpes virus-1 (CpHV-1) and bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) in 269 goat sera collected from small-scale family farms located in six provinces within the Black Sea region of northern Turkey. The overall seropositivity for alpha-herpesvirus in the native goats was found as 19.33% using BoHV-1 glycoprotein B (gB)-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 was determined in 5.20% of the goats using virus neutralization test. To distinguish between CpHV-1 and BoHV-1, the combinations of gB/gE-blocking ELISA tests were performed. Of tested samples, 15.24% were CpHV-1 seropositive; whereas, 4.09% were BoHV-1 seropositive. The results indicated that CpHV-1 is in circulation among local goats of northern Turkey. Considering the close relationship between BoHV-1 and CpHV-1, the transmission of BoHV-1 via goats may also be one of the predisposing factors involving in the spread of virus among the surrounding cattle.


  1. Tempesta M, Greco G, Camero M, et al. Virological and histological findings in goats infected by caprine herpesvirus 1. New Microbiol 2002; 25(3): 281-284.
  2. Camero M, Lanave G, Lucente MS et al. Bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1 induces a latent/reactivable infection in goats. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019; 62:54-57.
  3. Suavet F, Champion J-L, Bartolini L, et al. First description of infection of caprine herpesvirus 1(CpHV-1) in goats in mainland France. Pathogens 2016; 5(1): 17. doi: 10.3390/pathogens5010017.
  4. Thiry J, Keuser V, Muylkens B, et al. Ruminant alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1. Vet Res 2006; 37(2): 169-190.
  5. Bertolini S, Rosamilia A, Caruso C, et al. A cross-sectional study to identify a set of risk factors for caprine herpesvirus 1 infection. BMC Vet Res 2018; 14(1): 94. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1401-8.
  6. Lyaku JR, Nettleton PF, Marsden H. A comparison of serological relationships among five ruminant alpha-herpesviruses by ELISA. Arch Virol 1992; 124(3-4): 333-341.
  7. Kramps JA, Banks M, Beer M, et al. Evaluation of tests for antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 performed in national reference laboratories in Europe. Vet Microbiol 2004; 102(3-4): 169-181.
  8. Ros C, Belák S. Characterization of the glycoprotein B gene from ruminant alphaherpesviruses. Virus Genes 2002; 24(2): 99-105.
  9. Marinaro M, Bellacicco AL, Tarsitano E, et al. Detection of caprine herpesvirus 1- specific antibodies in goat sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum neutralization test. J Vet Diagn Invest 2010; 22(2): 245-248.
  10. OIE Terrestial Manual. Infectious bovine rhino-tracheitis/Infectious pustular vulvovaginitis. In: Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. The World Organisation for Animal Health. 2018:1139-1146. Available at: admin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/3.04.11_IBR_ IPV.pdf.
  11. Yazici Z, Albayrak H, Ozan E, et al. Serological status of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in cattle in small-scale private farms in the Central Black Sea Region, Turkey. Pak Vet J 2015; 35(1): 101-102.
  12. Baydin MO, Dağalp SB. Investigation of the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and CpHV-1 infections using gB/gE ELISA combination and VNT in selected goat flocks. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg 2017; 64(4): 329-335.
  13. Gür S, Erol N, Yapıcı O, et al. The role of goats as reservoir hosts for bovine herpesvirus 1 under field conditions. Trop Anim Health Prod 2019; 51(4): 753-758.
  14. Ataseven VS, Başaran Z, Yılmaz V, et al. Seroprevalence of parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) infections in goats of Van region [Abstract in English]. YYÜ Veteriner Fak Derg 2010; 21(1): 7-9.
  15. Alpay G, Tuncer P, Yeşilbağ K. Serological distribution of some viral infections in cattle, sheep, and goats in an isolated island-ecosystem [Abstract in English]. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg 2014; 61: 43-48.