Comparison of meat quality characteristics of dry aged lamb loins and ‎optimization of dry aging process

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkiye

2 Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur, Turkiye

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics, meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory properties of lamb meat during 0, 7 and 14 day of the dry aging process. The M. longissimus lumborum (LL) and M. longissimus thoracis (LT) muscles from male Akkaraman lambs were used. The pH values of the LT and LL cuts were not changed during the aging periods. The LT cuts had significantly higher weight loss, a* and b* values, and lower shear force compared to the LL cuts. However, dry aging led to greater decreases in shear force in the LL cuts on 7th day of aging. The total mesophilic aerobic counts, total psychrophilic counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast-mold counts were increased during the aging process. The sensory panel scoring showed a significant difference in the LL cuts and no significant difference in the LT cuts compared to the control group. There were significant changes in sensory panel scores for the LL cuts, whereas there were no significant changes for the LT cuts according to the non-aged samples. In conclusion, dry aging improved the quality of both cuts, however, the LL muscle of lamb was more suitable for dry aging. Moreover, 7 days were sufficient to produce the desired sensory properties in the lamb loins. Increasing the aging time from 7 to 14 days did not appreciably affect the sensory attributes or tenderness.

Keywords


  1.  

    1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). FAOSTAT database 2013. Available at: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QA/visualize. Accessed Jan 15, 2021.
    2. Turkish Statistical Institute, Livestock Statistics 2018. Available at: http://www.tuik.gov.tr. Accessed Jan 15, 2021.
    3. Akçapınar H. Sheep breeding [Turkish]. 2nd Ankara, Türkiye: Ismat printing Company, 2000: 87-122.
    4. Hedrick HB, Stringer WC, Clarke A. Recommendations for aging beef. University of Missouri Extension. 1993. Available at: https://extension2.Mis souri.edu/G2209. Accessed Dec 11, 2021.
    5. Kahraman HA, Gürbüz Ü. Aging applications on beef meat. MANAS J Eng 2018; 6(1): 7-13.
    6. Warren KE, Kastner CL. A comparison of dry-aged and vacuum-aged beef strip loins. J Muscle Foods 1992; 3(2): 151-157.
    7. Matos RA, Menezes CM, Ramos EM, et al. Effects of fermentation types in final quality of mutton cooked fermented sausages. Boletim Ceppa 2007; 25(2): 225-234.
    8. Dutra MP, Palhares PC, Silva JRO, et al. Technological and quality characteristics of cooked ham-type pâté elaborated with sheep meat. Small Rumin Res 2013; 115: 56-61.
    9. Paulos K, Rodrigues S, Oliveira AF, et al. Sensory characterization and consumer preference mapping of fresh sausages manufactured with goat and sheep meat. J Food Sci 2015; 80(7): S1568-S1573.
    10. Sañudo C, Monteiro ALG, Valero MV, et al. Cross-cultural study of dry-cured sheep meat acceptability by native and immigrant consumers in Spain. J Sens Stud 2015; 31(1): 12-21.
    11. de Andrade JC, Nalério ES, Giongo C, et al. Consumer perception of dry-cured sheep meat products: Influence of process parameters under different evoked contexts. Meat Sci 2017; 130: 30-37.
    12. Jeremiah LE, Tong AKW, Gibson LL. Hot‐boning, elevated temperature conditioning, and vacuum packaged aging influences on lamb cooking losses and palatability. J Food Sci 1997; 62(5): 1026-1060.
    13. Choe JH, Stuart A, Kim YHB. Effect of different aging temperatures prior to freezing on meat quality attributes of frozen/thawed lamb loins. Meat Sci 2016; 116: 158-164.
    14. Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage (CIE). Technical Report: Colorimetry. 4th ed. 2018. Available at: http://cie.co.at/publications/colorimetry-4th-edition. Accessed Dec 13, 2021.
    15. Tarladgis BG, Watts BM, Younathan MT, et al. A distillation method for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1960; 37(1): 44-48.
    16. Kahraman HA, Gürbüz Ü. Effects of three aging methods on the longissimus lumborum muscle from Holstein-Friesian steers. Med Weter 2019; 75(3): 179-184.
    17. de Huidobro FR, Miguel E, Blázquez B, et al. A comparison between two methods (Warner–Bratzler and texture profile analysis) for testing either raw meat or cooked meat. Meat Sci 2005; 69(3): 527-536.
    18. Wheeler TL, Papadopoulos LS, Miller RK. Research guidelines for cookery, sensory evaluation, and instrumental tenderness measurements of meat. 2nd Version 1.02. Champaign, USA: Am. Meat Sci. Assoc. 2016; 82-84 .
    19. Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM). United States Food and Drug Administration. Rockville, Md. 2001. Available at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam‐ toc.html. Accessed Dec 13, 2021.
    20. International Organization for Standardization (ISO-17410). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal Method for the enumeration of psychrotrophic microorganisms 2001. Available at: https://www.iso.org/standard/30649.html. Accessed Dec 13, 2021.
    21. International Organization for Standardization (ISO-21528-2). Microbiology of the food chain. Horizontal method for the detection and enumeration of Colony-count technique, Part 2, 2017. Available at: https://www.iso.org/standard/635 04.html. Accessed Dec 13, 2021.
    22. International Organization for Standardization (ISO-15214). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the enumeration of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Colony-count technique at 30 degrees C 1998. Available at: https://www.iso.org/ standard/26853.html. Accessed Dec 13, 2021.
    23. International Organization for Standardization (ISO-E.21527–1). Microbiology of food and animal feedings Stuff-Horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and molds, Part 1. Colony count technique in products with water activity greater than 0,95. 2008. Available at: https://www.iso.org/standard/38275.html. Accessed Dec 13, 2021.
    24. Pearson AM, Gray JI, Wolzak AM, et al. Safety implications of oxidized lipids in muscle food. Food Technol 1983; 37(7): 121-129.
    25. Węglarz A. Meat quality defined based on pH and colour depending on cattle category and slaughter season. Czech J Anim Sci 2010; 55(12): 548-556.
    26. Kim YHB, Meyers B, Kim HW, et al. Effects of stepwise dry/wet-aging and freezing on meat quality of beef loins. Meat Sci 2017; 123: 57-63.
    27. Kim YHB, Liesse C, Kemp, R, et al. Evaluation of combined effects of ageing period and freezing rate on quality attributes of beef loins. Meat Sci 2015; 110: 40-45.
    28. Li X, Babol J, Wallby A, et al. Meat quality, microbiological status and consumer preference of beef gluteus medius aged in a dry ageing bag or vacuum. Meat Sci 2013; 95(2): 229-234.
    29. Ahnström M, Seyfert M, Hunt MC, et al. Dry aging of beef in a bag highly permeable to water vapour. Meat Sci 2006; 73(4): 674-679.
    30. Degeer SL, Hunt MC, Bratcher CL, et al. Effects of dry aging of bone-in and boneless trip loins using two aging processes for two aging times. Meat Sci 2009; 83(4): 768-774.
    31. Parrish FC, Boles JA, Rust RE, et al. Dry and wet aging effects on palatability attributes of beef loin and rib steaks from three quality grades. J Food Sci 1991; 56(3): 601-603.
    32. Park SY, Yoo SS, Uh JH, et al. Evaluation of lipid oxidation and oxidative products as affected by pork meat cut, packaging method, storage time during frozen storage (–10 degrees C). J Food Sci 2007; 72(2): 114-119.
    33. Tan W, Shelef LA. Effect of sodium chloride and lactates on chemical and microbiological changes in refrigerated and frozen fresh ground pork. Meat Sci 2002; 62(1): 27-32.
    34. Rahman MH, Hossain MM, Rahman SME, et al. Evaluation of physicochemical deterioration and lipid oxidation of beef muscle affected by freeze-thaw cycles. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2015; 35(6): 772-782.
    35. Smith RD, Nicholson KL, Nicholson JDW, et al. Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer palatability evaluations of steaks from US Choice and US Select short loins. Meat Sci 2008; 79(4): 631-639.
    36. Pinkas A, Voinova R, Popoviska, T. Changes in lamb meat tenderness as affected by postmortem biochemical modifications in myofibrillar protein. Zhivotrovundi Nauki. 1978; 15: 47-53.
    37. Picard B, Duris MP, Jurie C. Classification of bovine muscle fibres by different histochemical techniques. Histochem J 1998; 30(7): 473-479.
    38. Li C, Zhou GH, Xu XL, et al. Effects of marbling on meat quality characteristics and intramuscular connective tissue of beef longissimus muscle. Asian-australas J Anim Sci 2006; 19(12): 1799-1808.
    39. Khan MI, Jung S, Nam KC, et al. Postmortem aging of beef with a special reference to the dry aging. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2016; 36(2): 159-169.
    40. Feiner G. Meat products handbook: Practical science and technology. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing Limited 2006; 27-30.
    41. Hwang YH, Sabikun N, Ismail I, et al. Comparison of meat quality characteristics of wet- and dry-aging pork belly and shoulder blade. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2018; 38(5): 950-958.
    42. Kim YHB, Kemp R, Samuelsson LM. Effects of dry-aging on meat quality attributes and metabolite profiles of beef loins. Meat Sci 2016; 111: 168-176.
    43. Zhang W, Xiao S, Ahn DU. Protein oxidation: basic principles and implications for meat quality. Crit Rev FoodSci Nutr 2013; 53(11): 1191-1201.
    44. Kim YHB, Hunt MC. Advance technology to improve meat color. In: Joo ST (Eds). Control of Meat Quality, Kerala, India: Research Signpost 2011; 31-60.
    45. Campbell RE, Hunt MC, Levis P, et al. Dry-aging effects on palatability of beef longissimus muscle. J Food Sci 2006; 66(2): 196-199.
    46. European Community (EC). Commission regulation No. 2073/2005 of 22 December 2005. Microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union, 2005. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/ PDF/?uri=CELEX:32005R2073&from=EN. Accessed Dec 13, 2021.

     

Volume 13, Issue 1
March 2022
Pages 21-27
  • Receive Date: 20 February 2020
  • Revise Date: 14 April 2020
  • Accept Date: 06 July 2020
  • First Publish Date: 15 December 2021