Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and vitamin E on histopathological lesions induced in bursa of Fabricius of broiler chicks by salinomycin

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran

2 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 DVM Graduated, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of the turmeric in comparison to vitamin E on bursal damages induced by salinomycin in broiler chickens. In this study, forty one day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups: 1- basal diet as control, 2- basal diet plus salinomycin, 3- basal diet plus salinomycin (SLM) and vitamin E (Vit. E) and 4- basal diet plus salinomycin and turmeric powder. The chicks were treated for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the bursal tissues were removed and fixed in 10% formalin solution. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain for histopathological studies. Light microscopic observations showed that, SLM diminished cortex thickness of bursal tissue, enhanced its medulla zone and caused severe lymphocytic necrosis. In addition, SLM led to fibrosis of interstitium along with sever edema of medulla zone in the bursal tissue of the chicken. Administration of Vit. E and TP significantly inhibited the SLM-induced derangements and comparing the Vit. E and TP showed no significant differences. The results of this study indicated that the turmeric may protect bursa of Fabricius against toxicity induced by salinomycin in chicks.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. Samuelson DA. Textbook of veterinary histology. St. Louis, USA: Saunders - Elsevier 2007; 270.
  2. Owens FN. Ionophore effect on utilization and metabolism of nutrients ruminants. In proceedings: Georgia Nutrition Conference. University of Georgia, Athens 1980; 11-25.
  3. Novilla MN. The veterinary importance of toxic syndrome induced by ionophores. Vet Hum Toxicol 1992; 34(1): 66-70.
  4. Neuschl J, Saly J, Simko S, et al. Acute toxicity of sodium salinomycin in Synvertas plv. ad us.vet. preparation in chickens. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2001; 45(2): 315-321.
  5. Rizvi F, Anjum AD, Rizvi F. Effect of salinomycin on broiler health. Vet Archiv 1999; 69(1): 39-47.
  6. Saly J, Magic D, Neuschl J, et al. Subchronic toxicity to chicks of sodium salinomycin in the preparation Synvertas plv. a.u.v. Folia Vet 2002; 46(2): 86-89.
  7. Khan MZ, Szarek J, Marchalok E, et al. Effect of concurrent administration of monesin and selenium on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and liver selenium concentration in broiler chicks. Bio Trace Elem Res 1995; 49(2-3): 129-138.
  8. Maini SK. Oxidation related problems in poultry and livestock feeds. Poult Plan 2000; 1: 7-8.
  9. Inokuchi H, Hirokane H, Tsuzuki T, et al. Anti-angiogenic activity of tocotrienol. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2003; 67(7): 1623-1627.
  10. Aslam F, Khan A, Khan M, et al. Toxico-pathological changes induced by cypermethrin in broiler chicks: Their attenuation with vitamin E and selenium. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2010; 62(4): 441–450.
  11. Crespo R, Shivaprasad HL, Sommer F, et al. Interaction of ionophore and vitamin E in knockdown syndrome of turkeys. J Vet Diagn Invest 2008; 20(4): 472-476.
  12. Pakcer L, Suzuki Y. Vitamin E and alpha-lipoate: Role in antioxidant recycling and activation of the NF-κB trans-cription factor. Mol Asp Med 1993; 14(3): 229-239.
  13. Erf GF, Bottje WG, Bersi TK, et al. Effects of dietary vitamin E on the immune system in broilers: Altered proportions of CD4 T cells in the thymus and spleen. Poult Sci 1998; 77(4): 529-537.
  14. Leshchinsky TV, Klasing KC. Relationship between the level of dietary vitamin E and the immune response of broiler chickens. Poult Sci 2001; 80(11): 1590-1599.
  15. Maizura M, Aminah A, Wan AW. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of kesum (Polygonum minus), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract. Int Food Res J 2011; 23(18): 526-531.
  16. Kim KJ, Yu HH, Cha JD, et al. Antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa L. against methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phytother Res 2005; 19(7): 599-604.
  17. Kunnumakkara AB, Guha S, Krishnan S, et al. Curcumin potentiates antitumor activity of gemcitabine in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer through suppression of proliferation, angiogenesis, and inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-regulated gene products. Cancer Res 2007; 67(8): 3853-3861.
  18. Sefidan AM, Mohajeri D. Preventive effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa linn) on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Adv Biores 2013; 4(4): 40-46.
  19. Maheswari RK, Singh AK, Gaddipati J, et al. Multiple biological activities of curcumin: A short review. Life Sci 2006; 78(18): 2081-2087.
  20. Tamaddonfard E, Farshid AA, Maroufi S, et al. Effects of safranal, a constituent of saffron, and vitamin E on nerve functions and histopathology following crush injury of sciatic nerve in rats. Phytomed 2014; 21(5): 717-723.
  21. Andreasen JR, Schleifer JH. Salinomycin toxicosis in male breeder turkeys. Avian Dis 1995; 39: 638-642.
  22. Bila CG, Perreira CL, Gruys E. Accidental toxicosis in horses in Mozambique. J South Afr Vet Associat 2001; 72(3): 163-164.
  23. Hussein MSH, Abd-El-Rahman AH. Hematological, Biochemical, Immunological and Histopathological changes caused by salinomycin in chicken. Egypt J nat toxins 2005; 2: 13-38.
  24. Peixoto PV, Nogueira VA, Gonzalez AP. et al. Accidental  and experimental salinomycin poisoning in rabbits. Pesq Vet Bras 2009; 29(9): 695-699.
  25. Sawant SG, Terse PS, Dalvi RR. Toxicity of dietary monensin in quail. Avian Dis 1990; 34: 571-574.
  26. Reyes-Gordillo K, Segovia J, Shibayama M, et al. Curcumin prevents and reverses cirrhosis induced by bile duct obstruction or CCl4 in rats: Role of TGF-b modulation and oxidative stress. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2008; 22(4): 417-27.
  27. Yue GGL, Chan BC, Hon PM, et al. Evaluation of in vitro antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities of compounds isolated from Curcuma longa. Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48(8-9): 2011-2020.
  28. Lao CD, Ruffin MT, Normolle D, et al. Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006; 6(10):1.
  29. Sodhi S, Sharma A, Brar RS. A protective effect of vitamin E and Selenium in ameliorating the immunotoxicity of malathion in chicks. Vet Res Communications 2006; 30(8): 935-942.
  30. Tayeb IT, Qader GK. Effect of feed supplementation of selenium and vitamin E on production performance and some hematological parameters of broiler. KSU J Nat Sci 2012; 15(3): 46-56.
  31. Dlouha G, Sevcikova S, Dokoupilova A, et al. Effect of dietary selenium sources on growth performance, breast muscle selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidative stability in broilers. Czech J Anim Sci 2008; 53(6): 265-269.
  32. Arshami J, Pilevar M, Aami Azghadi M, et al. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of curcumin on blood parameters, humoral immunity, and jejunum histology in Hy-line hens. Avicenna J Phytomed 2013; 3(2):178-185.
  33. Madhavi K, Saraswathi VS. In vivo toxicological evaluation of chlorpyrifos pesticide on female albino mice: Therapeutic effects of Curcuma longa. Inter J Pharm Sci Res 2011; (2):439-447.
  34. Nakamurya K, Imada Y, Maeda M. Lymphocytic depletion of bursa of Fabricius and thymus in chickens inoculated with Escherichia coli. Vet Pathol1986; 23(6): 712-717.
  35. Shalaby MA, El-Sanousi AA, Yehia MM, et al. The effect of salinomycin on the immune response ofchicks. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 1993;100(5):182-185.
  36. Nain S, Bour A, Chalmers C, et al. Immunotoxicity and disease resistance in Japanese quail (Corturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to malathion. Ecotoxicol 2011; 20(4): 892-900.
  37. Narendra K. Studies on pathology of experimental salt toxicity in relation to turmeric feeding in cockerel. Indian J Vet Path 2004; 28(2):147.
  38. Hoehler D. Marquardt RR. Influence of vitamin E and C on the toxic effects of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin in chicks. Poult Sci 1996; 75(12): 1508-1515.
  39. Akram M, Uddin S, Ahmed A, et al. Curcuma longa and and curcumin: a review article. Rom J Biol-Plant 2010; 55(2): 65–70.
  40. Gowda NKS, Ledoux DR, Rottinghaus GE, et al. Efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa), containing a known level of curcumin, and a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Poult Sci 2008; 87(6): 1125-1130.
  41. Gowda NKS, Ledoux DR, Goerge ER, et al. Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1. Brit J Nutr 2009; 102(11): 1629-1634.
  42. Erenoglu C, Kanter M, Aksu B, et al. Protective effect of curcumin on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats. Balkan Med J 2011; 28: 352-357.
  43. Cheng H, Liu W, Ai X. Protective effect of curcumin on myocardial ischemial reperfusion injury in rats. J Chin Med Mat 2005; 28(10): 920-922.