Anatomical and cytohistological study of the pituitary gland in adult turkey

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

In order to conduct this study, eight adult turkey heads were obtained. Pituitary glands were harvested following cranial bones removal and examined morphologically and anatomically as well as topographically. Then, tissue sections were prepared and stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin, Alcian blue, orange G and periodic acid-Schiff staining techniques. The results showed that turkey pituitary gland as a pea-sized structure is located in the ventral part of the cerebrum and composed of adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis parts. Moreover, histological analyses revealed that sinusoids are well-developed at the distal part of the adenohypophysis and irregular masses of endocrine cells exist among them. Distributions of basophilic cells in the distal part of adenohypophysis were significantly higher than those of other endocrine cells, while the acidophilic cells had the lowest distribution. Lower and higher numbers of chromophobe cells were also found compared to those of basophilic and acidophilic cells, respectively. These findings were mostly similar to the other birds’ pituitary gland anatomical and histological features, but there were also differences in cellular elements distributions along with infundibular cavity topography.

Keywords

Main Subjects

 

  1. Whittow GC. Sturkie's avian physiology. 5th ed. San Diego, USA: Academic Press 1999; 437-460.
  2. Eurell JA, Frappier BL. Dellmann's textbook of veterinary histology. 6th ed. Iowa, USA: Wiley-Blackwell 2013; 300-306.
  3. Ritchie M. Neuroanatomy and physiology of the avian hypothalamic/pituitary axis: Clinical aspects. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2014; 17(1): 13-22.
  4. Bacha WJ, Bacha LM. Color atlas of veterinary histology. 2nd ed. West Sussex, USA: Wiley-Blackwell 2000; 191-193.
  5. Mohanty B. Extracellular accumulations in the avian pituitary gland: Histochemical analysis in two species of Indian wild birds. Cells Tissues Organs 2006; 183 (2): 99-106.
  6. Sasaki F, Doshita A, Matsumoto Y, et al. Embryonic development of the pituitary gland in the chick. Cells Tissues Organs 2003; 173(2): 65-74.
  7. Harrisson F. Primary cilia associated with striated rootlets in granulated and folliculo-stellate cells of the avian adenohypophysis. Anat Embryol (Berl) 1989; 180(6): 543-547.
  8. Yoo YS, Park HS, Choi GH, et al. Recent advances in the development of experimental animal models mimicking human aortic aneurysms. Vasc Specialist Int 2015; 31(1): 1-10.
  9. LexB, Klaas van der H, Gerard van D, et al. World livestock and crop production systems, land use and environment between 1970 and 2030. In: Brouwer F, McCarl BA (Eds). Agriculture and Climate Beyond 2015: A new perspective on future land use patterns. Netherlands, Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media 2006; 77-80.
  10. Pavade G, Awada L, Hamilton K, et al. The influence of economic indicators, poultry density and the performance of veterinary services on the control of high-pathogenicity avian influenza in poultry. Rev Sci Tech 2011; 30(3): 661-671.
  11. Knight-Jonesa TJD, RushtonbJ. The economic impacts of foot and mouth disease – What are they, how big are they and where do they occur? Prev Vet Med 2013; 112(3-4): 161-173.
  12. Jalali AS, Hasanzadeh S, Malekinejad H. Achillea millefolium inflorescence aqueous extract ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in rat testis: Stereological evidences. Chin J Nat Med 2012; 10(4): 247-254.
  13. Tieleman BI, Versteegh MA, Fries A, et al. Genetic modulation of energy metabolism in birds through mitochondrial function. Proc Biol Sci 2009; 276(1662): 1685-1693.
  14. Rioux P, Blier PU. Energetic metabolism and biochemical adaptation: A bird flight muscle model. Biochem Mol Biol Educ 2006; 34(2): 125-128.
  15. Chiale MC, Fernández PE, Gimeno EJ, et al. Morphology and histology of the uropygial gland in Antarctic birds: Relationship with their contact with the aquatic environment? Aust J Zool 2014; 62(2) 157-165.
  16. Klasing KC. Avian gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. Semin Avian Exot Pet Med 1999; 8(2): 42-50.
  17. Lowe JS, Anderson PG. Stevens & Lowe's human histology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Elsevier/Mosby 2014; 1-10.
  18. Dyce KM, Sack WO, Wensing CJG. Textbook of veterinary anatomy. 4th ed. St. Louis, USA: Elsevier Health Sciences 2009; 216-217.
  19. Vuković S, Lucić H, Duras Gomercić M, et al. Anatomical and histological characteristics of the pituitary gland in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) from the Adriatic Sea. Vet Arhiv 2011; 81(1): 143-151.
  20. Oelschläger HH, Kemp B. Ontogenesis of the sperm whale brain. J Comp Neurol 1998; 399(2): 210-228.
  21. Cowan DF, Haubold EM, Tajima Y.  Histological, immuno-histochemical and pathological features of the pituitary gland of odontocete cetaceans from the Western gulf of Mexico. J Comp Pathol 2008; 139(2-3): 67-80.
  22. Ekici A, Timur M. An anatomical and histochemical examination of the pituitary gland of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Turk J Vet Anim Sci 2013; 37: 399-403.
  23. Poole MC, Kornegay WD. Cellular distribution within the rat adenohypophysis: A morphometric study. Anat Rec 1982; 204(1): 45-53.
  24. Mohammed SA. Differentiation between the anterior pituitary cells of the Egyptian insectivorous bats Rhinopoma hardwickei using transmission electron microscope. Endocrinol Metab Synd 2015; 4. doi: 10.4172/2161-1017.1000151.