Brodifacoum toxicosis and abortion in an Arabian mare

Document Type: Clinical Report

Authors

1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

2 Department of Laboratory and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

3 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran

Abstract

A 3-year-old pregnant Arabian mare was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz with a history of bleeding and rodenticide ingestion. The results of paraclinical examinations showed severe normocytic and normochromic anemia, decreased serum total protein, albumin, and fibrinogen concentrations, increased serum total bilirubin, urea, and creatinine concentrations, as well as increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase activity. Three days after treatment, all the clinical signs were resolved, however, fetus abortion occurred. In order to confirm the suspected cause of abortion and toxicosis, high-performance liquid chromatography was performed on serum sample of mare and liver tissue of the aborted fetus and toxicosis was confirmed. Poisoning with brodifacoum is considered as an important and lethal poisoning for both human being and animals.To our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous toxicosis and abortion with brodifacoum. Brodifacoum toxicosis can be effectively managed with early diagnosis, good paraclinical examinations and appropriate treatment.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Valchev I, Binev R, Yordanova V, et al. Anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication in animals: a review. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 2008; 32(4): 237-243.
  2. Carvallo FR, Poppenga R, Kinde H, et al. Cluster of cases of massive hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant detection in race horses. J Vet Diag Invest 2015; 27(1): 112-116.
  3. Murphy MJ, Gerken DF. The anticoagulant rodenticides. In: Kirk RW (Ed). Current veterinary therapy X: Small animal practice. Philadelphia, USA: WB Saunders 1989;143-146.
  4. Stone WB, Okoniewski JC, Stedelin JR. Poisoning of wildlife with anticoagulant rodenticides in New York. J Wildl Dis 1999; 35(2): 187-193.
  5. Maroni M, Colosio C, Ferioli A, et al. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposure: a review. Toxicology 2000; 143(1): 1-118.
  6. Boermans HJ, Johnstone I, Black WD, et al. Clinical signs, laboratory changes, and toxicokinetics of brodi-facoum in the horse. Can J Vet Res 1991; 55(1): 21-27.
  7. Ayala I, Rodriguez MJ, Martos N, et al. Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony. Can Vet J 2007; 48(6): 627-62.
  8. Henneke DR, Potter GD, Kreider JL, et al. Relationship between condition score, physical measurements and body fat percentage in mares. Equine Vet J 1983; 15(4): 371-372.
  9. Zajac AZ, Conboy GA. Veterinary clinical parasitology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Wiley-Blackwell 2012: 8-11.
  10. Constable PD, Kenneth W, Hinchcliff K, et al. A textbook of the disease of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats. 10th ed. Madrid, Spain: WB Saunders 2017: 1839-1840.
  11. Binev R, Petkov P, Rusenov A. Intoxication with anticoagulant rodenticide bromadiolone in a dog – a case report. Vet Arch 2005; 75(3): 273-282.
  12. Hanslik T, Prinseau J. The use of vitamin K in patients on anticoagulant therapy: a practical guide. Ame J Cardiovas Drugs 2004; 4: 43-55.
  13. Rebhun WC, Tennant BC, Dill SG, et al. Vitamin K3-induced renal toxicosis in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1984; 184(10): 1237-1239.
  14. McConnico RS, Copedge K, Bischoff KL. Brodifacoum toxicosis in two horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 211(7): 882-886.