1. Introduction and Editorial Policies

The Veterinary Research Forum (Vet Res Forum) publishes worldwide contributions on all aspects of veterinary science and medicine, including anatomy and histology, physiology and pharmacology, anatomic and clinical pathology, parasitology, microbiology, immunology and epidemiology, food hygiene, poultry science, fish and aquaculture, anesthesia and surgery, large and small animal internal medicine, large and small animal reproduction, biotechnology and diagnostic imaging of domestic, companion and farm animals. Authors who submit manuscripts to the journal should carefully read these “Guide for Authors” when preparing their manuscripts because compliance with these instructions will help reduce delays in manuscript processing. A manuscript is received with the understanding that it and all revisions have been approved by all authors and that neither the manuscript nor any of its parts has been published or is under concurrent consideration by any other publication. The corresponding author must provide a signed statement to this effect. A manuscript containing information published in any compiled printed (e.g., journals, symposia, proceedings, newsletters, books) or electronic (e.g., Web sites, CD-ROMs, DVDs) format will be rejected on the grounds of prior publication. All authors of Vet Res Forum will be required to sign a written statement transferring copyright to the Vet Res Forum prior to publication of any manuscript or letter. Requests to copy, reprint or use portions of published material (including information in figures and tables) should be addressed to the editor-in-chief.


  1. Editor-in-Chief

Farshid Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei. DVM, DVSc

Emeritus Professor in Veterinary Surgery

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. P.O. Box: 57153-1177

E-mail: f.sarrafzadeh@urmia.ac.ir


  1. Submission of Manuscripts

Veterinary Research Forum is proud to announce the launch of its official website at http://vrf.iranjournals.ir/.

Open access policy, online submission/tracking, web-based peer review system, and search feature are the fundamental features of the new website.

Manuscripts must be in English and Microsoft Word format (.doc/.docx). The manuscript (including references, and figure legends) must be double-spaced and typed, using 12-point Times New Roman font, 3.5 cm margins, and left justification. Manuscripts should be arranged as follows: title page, abstracts, text, acknowledgments, conflict of interest, references, and figure legends. Please note that the names of the authors and their affiliations should not be included in the main document. The title page must include the title and the first name, middle initial, and last name of each author, along with the professional affiliations of the authors at the time of the study should be indicated. If an author's affiliation has changed since the study was performed, the author's new affiliation should be identified. The name of the corresponding author should also be included on the title page. Each line and page of the manuscript must be numbered, beginning from the title page. Tables should be saved as separate files (.doc/.docx format).

Authors are required to provide the names, affiliations, and contact information (full mailing address, e-mail address) of two potential reviewers related to their manuscripts; though the choice of reviewers is at the discretion of the editor-in-chief.


  1. Authorship

Individuals should be listed as authors only if they 1) made a substantial contribution to the conception and design of the study, the acquisition of data used in the study, or analysis and interpretation of that data; 2) were involved in drafting or revising the manuscript critically for important intellectual content; and 3) will have an opportunity to approve subsequent revisions of the manuscript, including the version to be published. Each individual listed as an author must have participated sufficiently to take public responsibility for the work. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research team does not, alone, justify authorship.


  1. Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in the author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement. In the case of the addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.


  1. Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments can be used to identify important specific contributions from individuals who do not qualify for authorship. In particular, individuals who have contributed intellectually to the study or report but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be named and their function or contribution described. In general, this includes individuals who provided technical assistance (e.g., individuals who performed special tests or research) and individuals who provided assistance with statistical analyses. Acknowledgments should not include individuals whose only contribution to the study or report involved the routine performance of their normal job duties and who did not offer any unusual intellectual contribution or technical expertise. The acknowledgments should not be used simply as a method of expressing gratitude to individuals who had a minor role in the study. Acknowledgments of non-specific groups and unidentifiable groups are not allowed. Individuals named in acknowledgments must have given their permission to the authors to be listed, because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions.


  1. Funding

Authors are expected to acknowledge all sources of funding or financial support and to disclose to the editor any financial interests (including ownership, employment, consultancy arrangements, and service as an officer or board member) they have with companies that manufacture products that are the subject of their research or with companies that manufacture competing products.


  1. Humane Animal Care and Use

All research studies involving animals must have been performed with great respect for animal welfare. Any unnecessary manipulation or stress should be strictly avoided. A manuscript containing information that suggests that animals were subjected to adverse, stressful, or harsh conditions or treatments will not be considered for publication unless the authors demonstrate convincingly that the knowledge gained was of sufficient value to justify these conditions or treatments. If animals were euthanized, the method of euthanasia must be indicated.

All manuscripts reporting the results of experimental investigations involving human subjects should include a statement confirming that informed consent was obtained from each subject or subject’s guardian. All animal or human studies should be used after a local ethics committee approves the experimental protocol.


  1. Style

For questions of style, refer to the latest edition of the Veterinary Research Forum. For anatomic terms, use anglicized versions of official terms listed in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. Refer to the latest editions of the American Drug Index and USP Dictionary of USAN and International Drug Names for the proper spelling of chemical and drug names and to the latest edition of Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary for proper spelling and use of medical terms. Refer to Bergey's Manual of Determinative Microbiology for spelling and correct taxonomic classifications of microorganisms.

The use of abbreviations should be kept to a minimum. Except for standard abbreviations and units of measure, all abbreviations used three or more times in the text, figures, and tables of a manuscript should be listed at the beginning of the manuscript, along with their definitions.

These abbreviations should then be used without expansion. Abbreviations that appear only in the figures or tables should be defined in the table or figure legend. Abbreviations should not be used to begin a sentence. In addition, abbreviations in the abstract must be expanded at first mention, with the abbreviation given in parentheses after the first mention of the expanded term. Products, equipment, and drugs should be identified by chemical or generic names or descriptions. A trade name may be included in a lettered footnote if that specific product, equipment, or drug was essential for the outcome. Body weights and temperatures must be reported in metric units. All dosages must include the route of administration and interval (e.g., 10.00 mg kg-1, IV, q12h, Alfasan, The Netherlands). The manufacturer's name with the city and country must be provided for any brand name drugs. Numerical data should be expressed with decimal places (e.g., 10.00 mL). Numbers up to nine are spelled out, while those that are greater are represented by numerals.


  1. Categories of Manuscripts

Authors may submit manuscripts for publication in the Original Articles (including original studies, retrospective studies, and descriptive studies), Review Articles, Short Communications, and Clinical Reports.

A manuscript based on original research in which animals had a naturally developing or experimentally induced disease or condition will be considered for publication as an Original Article. A manuscript based on an evaluation of case records accumulated during a specific period will be considered a Retrospective Study. A manuscript in which a new technique, treatment, or diagnostic method is described will be considered a Descriptive Study. A Review Article will usually be written at the request of the Editorial Board of the Veterinary Research ‎Forum and is usually written by scholars and experts in the field who have published at least five research papers on the subject in the native and/or international journals. In review articles, the results of published research are closely evaluated, the strong and weak points are stated, and suggestions for further improvement may be made. A Short Communication is for a concise, but independent report representing a significant contribution to veterinary science and medicine and must report completed work, not preliminary findings: they are an alternative format for describing smaller pieces of work.

 A manuscript dealing with any number of clinical cases will be considered a Clinical Report.


  1. Manuscript Preparation

With the exception of review articles, all manuscripts submitted to the Original Research section must include an Abstract of 150 to 250 words.

Authors should list three to five alphabetically ordered keywords that appropriately represent the contents of their manuscripts. Keywords are a tool to help indexers and search engines find relevant papers. If database search engines can find your journal manuscript, readers will be able to find it too. This will increase the number of people reading your paper, and likely lead to more citations. However, to be effective, keywords must be chosen carefully. They should be preferably not included in the title of the manuscript. According to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology regulation (letter No. 3104), the authors are not required to provide Persian abstract and keywords. 

The text for an Original Article is organized under the following headings: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion.

The Introduction section should supply sufficient pertinent background information to allow readers to understand and interpret results. It must include the rationale for the study, the investigators' hypothesis, and a clear statement of the purpose of the study. The Materials and Methods section should describe the experimental design in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the study. A subsection detailing statistical methods used to summarize data and test hypotheses and the level of significance used for hypothesis testing should be provided. The Results section should provide data that are clearly and simply stated without discussion or conclusion. Tables and figures should be cited parenthetically. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text. Data should not be repeated unnecessarily in text, tables, and figures. The Discussion section should focus on findings in the manuscript and should be brief, containing the only discussion that is necessary for the interpretation of findings.

Authors are recommended to consider the following instructions when preparing their manuscripts:

  • Review Articles: The body of the article (Introduction to end of Discussion) must not exceed 5,000 words the entire article should not exceed 30 A4 pages, including figures, tables, and references. References should be limited to 60. Review articles can include a maximum of five figures and/or tables (i.e., any combination of tables and figures up to a total of five overall, not five figures and five tables).
  • Original Articles: The body of the article (Introduction to end of Discussion) must not exceed 4,000 words. The entire article should not exceed 25-30 A4 pages double-spaced, including figures, tables, and references (maximum of 50 references). Original articles should have no more than four figures and/or tables (in total).
  • Short Communications: The body of the article must not exceed 2,000 words with any more than 20 references. Figures, tables, or both, should not exceed two.
  • Case Reports: The body of the article must not exceed 1,500 words. The maximum number of tables is two and the maximum number of figures is six. References should be limited to 15.


  1. References

The authors bear primary responsibility for the accuracy of all references. Excessive citations should be avoided and only essential resources should be listed. References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text (not in alphabetic order). Superscript numbers should be positioned after the punctuation in the text. References in non-English languages should be translated into English, and the original language has to be mentioned in square brackets [French], for example. Journal titles in the Reference section should be abbreviated in accordance with the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and Index Medicus. Software programs that automatically create endnotes, footnotes, and references should not be used. The following is the style used for common types of references:


Journal article with one, two, or three authors:

Uzun A, Cengiz N, Kavaklı A. Morphological and microscopical examination of the rat brachial plexus [Turkish]. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 2001; 25(3): 397-402.

Journal article with more than three authors:

Behfar M, Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei F, Hobbenaghi R, et al. Adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction improves tendon healing in rabbits. Chin J Traumatol 2011; 14(6): 329-335.

Book with a single author:

Gretchen LH. Animal tissue techniques. 4th ed. San Francisco, USA: WH Freeman 1979; 51-119.

Book with multiple authors:

Aronoff GR, Berns JS, Brier ME, et al. Drug prescribing in renal failure. 4th ed. Philadelphia, USA: American College of Physicians 1999; 39-45.

Chapter in a book with editors:

Nordin M, Lorenz T, Campello M. Biomechanics of tendons and ligaments. In: Nordin M, Frankel VH (Eds). Basic biomechanics of musculoskeletal system. 3rd ed. Maryland, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2001; 102-125.

Conference proceedings:

Davidson EB. Treatment of mammary tumors in dogs and cats. In Proceedings: North American veterinary conference. Orlando, USA 2003; 1036-1038.


Koyun M. The helminths fauna of some fishes in Enne Dam Lake. Ph.D. Thesis, Uludag University Science Institution. Bursa, Turkey: 2000.

Electronic material:

Animal and plant health inspection service website. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Available at: www.aphis.usda.gov/ipa/issues/bse/bse.html. Accessed Feb 18, 2020.


CLSI. Auto verification of Medical Laboratory Results for Specific Disciplines. 1st ed. CLSI guideline AUTO15. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2019. 


  1. Figures

All figures should be saved as separate electronic files (jpg format); figures should not be embedded in the manuscript. Simple figures such as line drawings, bar graphs, and line graphs prepared in Excel should be saved as Excel files (.xls). Line drawings and graphs that were not prepared in Excel should be scanned on a flatbed scanner. Figures created with software programs that use proprietary graphic formats (e.g., SigmaPlot, Statistix) cannot be used; most such software programs have the capability to save figures in one of the aforementioned formats. The minimum resolution for line drawings and charts is 1,000 dpi. Figures that consist of images (e.g., photographs, photomicrographs, and radiographs) should be scanned on a flatbed scanner at a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Files should be saved as jpg. If images were obtained with a digital camera, please submit the electronic file, rather than printing out the image and scanning it. Color figures should be submitted in CMYK, rather than RGB, format to prevent color shifts during production. Limit figures to those that reduce or clarify the text. Text and symbols should be large enough that they will still be legible when the figure is reduced to one column width during publication. To ensure high-quality reproduction, symbols used in graphs should be limited to open and closed circles, triangles, and squares; axes should be labeled in Helvetica or Arial font. Keys to symbols may be placed in a small box inserted into the unused portion of graphs. For figures that consist of multiple parts, individual parts of the figure should be identified by capital letters embedded in the figure, rather than by describing the location of the part in the legend (e.g., top right). Each figure can consist of 4 sub-panels. Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. Original radiographs and transparencies will not be accepted for review or publication. Figure legends must be given at the end of the manuscript. Sufficient information should be included to allow the figure to be understood without reference to the text. When applicable, stains used for histologic sections should be indicated along with the original magnification in the legend. The Journal reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size.

Preferably, micrographs should have a scale bar, rather than a magnification factor in the figure legend. Labels, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of uniform size. The lettering for figures should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit the width of a printed column. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations not on the illustrations themselves. Authors wishing to use any previously published figures must submit written permission from the copyright holder.


  1. Tables

Submission of excessive tabular data is discouraged, and tables should be limited to those containing data important to understanding and interpreting the results of the study. The authors will be asked to delete tables containing data that could be given more succinctly in the text. Do not use tables that focus on findings in individual animals. Table pieces (such as Table 1a and 1b) are not allowed. Authors wishing to use any previously published tables must submit written permission from the copyright holder. Each table should be numbered consecutively in the order of the first citation in the text. Tables should be drawn in a left-to-right direction. Supply a brief title of no more than 15 words for each, but place explanatory matter in the footnotes (not in the heading).


  1. Review Process

All manuscripts submitted to the journal are subject to review. Journal reserves the right to reject a submission for any reason without explanation. Manuscripts are reviewed initially by a Vet Res Forum scientific editor. Those with low priority for publication are rejected promptly. Manuscripts considered for publication are sent to a minimum of three experts for external review. The identity of reviewers and authors is kept confidential. The authors are expected to respond to reviewer comments and make appropriate revisions within 30 days. Revised manuscripts may be re-reviewed. Manuscripts that pass review are accepted for publication provided that authors respond meaningfully to questions and concerns raised by Vet Res Forum scientific editor. The authors should note that a previously rejected manuscript by Vet Res Forum would not be re-evaluated.


  1. Errata

The journal makes every effort to publish error-free manuscripts, providing authors with page proofs before publication. There are occasions, however, when it is necessary to issue a correction. Errata may be sent directly to vrf@urmia.ac.ir.

The author will be assessed page charge(s) for errata that result from author error. The journal will cover the costs of errata that are a result of the editing process.


  1. Misconduct

The Journal only accepts research papers that are original works, no part of which has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere except as brief abstracts. Duplicate publication, falsification, plagiarism, or fabrication will be considered actionable misconduct. Misconduct does not include honest error or honest differences in interpretations or judgments of data.

If scientific misconduct is confirmed by institutional review, the Editor-in-Chief will report this to Vet Res Forum’s Publications and Communications Committee (PCC) Chair and the Vet Res Forum Executive Director. Appropriate action will be decided in consultation with the Vet Res Forum Office of Publications. Violations considered severe may warrant the official withdrawal of a published article or rapid rejection of a manuscript at any stage before publication.

If no scientific misconduct is found, the manuscript (if unpublished) will be scheduled for publication. For errors in a published article not deemed to be misconduct, an Erratum or Letter to the Editor will be published. If there is a disagreement about the results of the investigation, the Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to restrict the author(s) from publishing in the journal for a specified period of time.


  1. Submission Fee  

From September 13th, 2021, no submission charges will be levied on the authors.


  1. Article publication charge (APC)

From March 15 th , 2023, manuscripts being accepted for publication in the Veterinary Research Forum are subjected to pay a mandatory charge for domestic and overseas authors as follows:
1. Domestic authors: 7,200,000 IRR for Review/Original Articles, and 3,600,000 IRR for Short Communications and Case Reports.
2. Overseas authors: 200.00 USD for all kinds of manuscripts, including Review/Original Articles, Short Communications, and Case Reports.
This charge covers expenses for peer review, journal publication, and online hosting and archiving. Color figures (maximum 4 figures,) are published free of extra charge if the use of color is judged to be necessary for scientific reasons. Extra charge for more figures will be declared to the corresponding authors in the final proof preparation step.
The charge form will be sent to the corresponding author on acceptance of an article for publication in the journal. Please be advised that the publication of the accepted manuscripts is dependent upon payment of the charge.


  1. Complaint Policy

The authors who may have a complaint against any of the aspects of their interaction with the Veterinary Research Forum should write an e-mail to the Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief aims to acknowledge the complaint within 7 days of receiving it. Further, he should explain to the author the procedure which he will be undertaking to resolve the matter.


  1. Disclaimer

The statements and opinions expressed in this journal are solely those of their respective authors and they do not necessarily reflect the views, nor are they endorsed by Vet Res Forum. Veterinary Research Forum and its publisher do not guarantee the accuracy of and are in no way responsible for, any content on the papers. 


  1. Plagiarism

Plagiarism ranges from the unreferenced use of others published and unpublished ideas, including research grant applications to submission under “new” authorship of a complete paper, sometimes in a different language. It may occur at any stage of planning, research, writing, or publication: it applies to print and electronic versions. All the manuscripts submitted to Vet Res Forum are checked by iThenticate for possible plagiarism. The authors are expected to check their manuscripts for plagiarism before submission.


  1. Copyright Policy

All accepted articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

  1. Conflicts of Interest

Conflicts of interest comprise those which may not be fully apparent and which may influence the judgment of the author, reviewers, and editors. They have been described as those which, when revealed later, would make a reasonable reader feel misled or deceived. They may be personal, commercial, political, academic, or financial. “Financial” interests may include employment, research funding, stock or share ownership, payment for lectures or travel, consultancies, and company support for staff. Authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or interests that may be perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of reported research results. If there is no conflict of interest, please state "The authors declare no conflict of interest." Any role of the funding sponsors in the design of the study; in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results must be declared in this section. If there is no role, please state “The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results”.



Last Updated: March 15, 2023