Effects of chitosan edible coating containing grape seed extract on the shelf-life of refrigerated rainbow trout fillet ‎

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Food Hygiene and Aquatic Disease, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran

2 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, West Azarbaijan, Iran

3 Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, School of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran


In recent years, the use of edible coatings as a carrier of food additives and antimicrobial compounds in fishery products has been considered. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of 2% chitosan coating singly or combined with 0.1% grape seed extract (GSE) on microbial (mesophilic and psychrophilic count), chemical (TBA, pH and PV) and sensorial properties of rainbow trout fillet stored at 4 °C over a period of 15 days. The coating had a significant effect in reducing aerobic mesophilic and psychrophilic bacterial counts. The TBA, PV, and pH of samples of chitosan coating alone or with GSE were lower than control ones which revealed a significant influence of coating on fillet shelf-life. Moreover, chitosan coating represented an equal sensorial quality with control. It was concluded that chitosan coating containing GSE can help to maintain the sensorial quality and increase the shelf-life of fillets at refrigerated conditions.


Main Subjects


  1. Andevari GT, Rezaei M. Effect of gelatin coating incorporated with cinnamon oil on the quality of fresh rainbow trout in cold storage. Int J Food Sci Technol 2011; 46(11): 2305-2311.
  2. Shahidi F. Handbook of antioxidants for food preservation. Cambridge, UK. Woodhead Publishing 2015; 51-78.
  3. Over KF, Hettiarachchy NS, Perumalla AVS, et al. Antilisterial activity and consumer acceptance of irradiated chicken breast meat vacuum-infused with grape seed and green tea extracts and tartaric acid. J Food Sci 2010; 75(7): M455-M461.
  4. Yilmaz Y, Toledo RT. Health aspects of functional grape seed constituents. Trends Food Sci Technol 2004; 15(9): 422-433.
  5. Elsabee MZ, Abdou ES. Chitosan based edible films and coatings: A review. Mater Sci Eng C 2013; 33(4): 1819-1841.
  6. Moradi M, Tajik H, Razavi Rohani SM, et al. Effectiveness of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil and grape seed extract impregnated chitosan film on ready-to-eat mortadella-type sausages during refrigerated storage. J Sci Food Agri 2011; 91(15): 2850-2857.
  7. Yuan G, Chen X, Li D. Chitosan films and coatings containing essential oils: The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, and application in food systems. Food Res Int 2016; 89:117-128.
  8. Fu Y, Sarkar P, Bhunia AK, et al. Delivery systems of antimicrobial compounds to food. Trends Food Sci Technol 2016; 57: 165-177.
  9. Association of official analytical chemists (AOAC), Official methods of analysis of the association of analytical chemists, 17th ed. Washington DC, USA: AOAC 2005; 5-8.
  10. Usydus Z, Szlinder-Richert J. Functional properties of fish and fish products: A review. Int J Food Prop 2012; 15(4): 823-846.
  11. Yingyuad S, Ruamsin S, Reekprkhon D, et al. Effect of chitosan coating and vacuum packaging on the quality of refrigerated grilled pork. Packag Technol Sci 2006; 19(3): 149-157.
  12. Egan H, Kirk RS, Sawyer R. Pearson's chemical analysis of foods. 8th ed. New York, USA: Churchill Livingstone 1981; 367-372.
  13. Pikul J, Leszczynski DE, Kummerow FA. Evaluation of three modified TBA methods for measuring lipid oxidation in chicken meat. J Agri Food Chem 1989; 37(5): 1309-1313.
  14. Jasour MS, Ehsani A, Mehryar L, et al. Chitosan coating incorporated with the lactoperoxidase system: an active edible coating for fish preservation. J Sci Food Agri 2014; 95(6): 1373-1378.
  15. Moradi M, Tajik H, No HK, et al. Potential inherent properties of chitosan and its applications in preserving muscle food. J Chitin Chitosan 2010; 15(1): 35-45.
  16. Ojagh SM, Rezaei M, Razavi SH, et al. Effect of chitosan coatings enriched with cinnamon oil on the quality of refrigerated rainbow trout. Food Chem 2010; 120(1): 193-198.
  17. Ouattara B, Simard RE, Holley RA, et al. Antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils against six meat spoilage organisms. Int J Food Microbiol 1997; 37: 155-162.
  18. Raeisi M, Tajik H, Aliakbarlu J, et al. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose-based coatings incorporated with Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil and grape seed extract on the shelf life of rainbow trout fillets. LWT - Food Sci Technol 2015; 64(2): 898-904.
  19. Yıldız PO, Yangılar F. Effects of different whey protein concentrate coating on selected properties of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) during cold storage (4 °C). Int J Food Prop 2016; 19(9): 2007-2015.
  20. Yu D, Xu Y, Jiang Q, et al. Effects of chitosan coating combined with essential oils on quality and antioxidant enzyme activities of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 °C. Int J Food Sci Technol 2016; 52 (2): 404-412.
  21. Ruiz-Capillas C, Moral A. Residual effect of CO2 on hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) stored in modified and controlled atmospheres. Eur Food Res and Technol 2001; 212(4): 413-420.
  22. Fan W, Chi Y, Zhang S. The use of a tea polyphenol dip to extend the shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) during storage in ice. Food Chem 2008; 108(1): 148-153.
  23. Chamanara V, Shabanpour B, Khomeiri M, et al. Shelf-life extension of fish samples by using enriched chitosan coating with thyme essential oil. J Aquat Food Prod Technol 2014; 22: 3-10.
  24. Raharjo S, Sofos JN. Methodology for measuring malonaldehyde as a product of lipid peroxidation in muscle tissues: A review. Meat Sci 1993; 35(2):
  25. Rosmini MR, Perlo F, Pérez-Alvarez JA, et al. TBA test by an extractive method applied to 'paté'. Meat Sci 1996; 42(1): 103-110.
  26. Kilinc B, Cakli S, Dincer T, et al. Microbiological, chemical, sensory, color, and textural changes of rainbow trout fillets treated with sodium acetate, sodium lactate, sodium citrate, and stored at 4 C. J Aquat Food Prod Technol 2009; 18: 3-17.
  27. Gibis M, Rahn N, Weiss J. Physical and oxidative stability of uncoated and chitosan-coated liposomes containing grape seed extract. Pharmaceutics 2013; 5: 421.