Fabrication of novel tubular scaffold for tendon repair from chitosan in combination with zinc nanoparticles

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 DVSc Candidate, Department of Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Department of Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

4 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

Chitosan bears numerous properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity making it suitable for use in different biomedical fields. Zinc (Zn) is required for fibroblasts proliferation and collagen synthesis as essential elements of wound healing. Its nanoparticles are well known for their capability to enhance wound healing by cell adhesion and migration improvement through growth factors-mediated mechanisms. Poor blood supply and unique histological characteristics of tendon make its regeneration always slow. Also, adhesion formation between tendon and its surrounding tissues is another problem for neotendon to return to its normal structure and functional activities. In this study, a novel tubular scaffold of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles loaded chitosan has been fabricated for tendon repair. Experimental complete tenotomy of deep digital flexor tendon in a rabbit model was done and scaffolds were placed in the transected area after two ends suturing. After four and eight weeks, adhesion formation around the tendons and tissue reaction to the scaffolds were evaluated macroscopically. Inflammation, angiogenesis and collagen fibers arrangement were also analyzed in histopathological evaluations. After eight weeks, the scaffolds were absorbed completely, adhesions around the tendon were decreased and there was no sign of significant tissue reaction and/or infection in histopathological analyses. The reduced adhesion formation, improved gliding function and better histopathological characteristics suggest this scaffold application as a potential therapy in treatment of tendon acute injuries.

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