Genus Brachyspira,as Gram negative anaerobic bacteria, colonize in dogs intestine. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of Brachyspira spp. for the first time in Iran and rapid identification of Brachyspira spp. in dogs by a new designment of a species-specific primer set for B. canis. One hundred fifty-one fecal samples were obtained from dogs by rectal swab. Twenty dogs suffered from diarrhea and 131 of them were healthy. In 9.27% (14/151) of samples, spirochaetes were detected on primary cultures by weak hemolysis and positive Gram staining and then Brachyspira genus was confirmed by NADH oxidase (nox) gene via polymerase chain reaction. Among 14 isolates, twelve isolates were B. canis, one isolate was B. intermedia and another one was non-typeable. From 12 B. canis, only eight isolates were detected by designed specific primers. Ten Brachyspira spp. were isolated from dogs ≤ 1 year old (10/67, 14.92%) and 4 isolates were from > 1 year old dogs (4/84, 4.76%). The isolation rates from healthy and diarrheic dogs were (12/131, 9.16%) and (2/20, 10.00%), respectively. A statistically signiﬁcant association was observed between the presence of Brachyspira spp. and the age under one year. Based on our findings, the nox gene in B. canis might have more sequence variability compared to other Brachyspira spp.