Cutaneous xanthogranuloma associated with Klebsiella pneumoniea in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)

Document Type: Clinical Report


1 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Budgerigar is a common name for a colorful Australian native bird belonging to the Melopsittacus undulatus species. It is a very familiar pet around the world and its breeding has been grown in Iran. This study was conducted on a 2-year-old budgerigar with a nodular mass on the left wing. Physical examination revealed a firm, round and well-circumscribed mass approximately 1.70 cm in diameter. Radiographs showed a soft tissue mass with no involvement of bony structures. Fine needle aspiration was performed and the sample was cultured. In cultural examination, Klebsiella spp. were isolated in pure culture. Genus and species of the bacteria were confirmed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The mass was surgically excised and it was mainly composed of numerous, large lipid-laden macrophages containing abundant vacuolated cytoplasm, extracellular acicular cholesterol clefts and large number of multinucleated giant cells (especially multinucleated Touton giant cells) in the dermis. Finally, a diagnosis of cutaneous xanthogranuloma was made based on histopathological findings.


  1. Banaszewska D, Biesiada-Drzazga B, Ostrowski D, et al. Assessment of budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) hatching in private breeding. Acta Sci Pol Zootech 2014; 13(3): 29-36.
  2. Vargas-Soto LM, Vazquez-Briones DB, Núñez-Ochoa L, et al. Xanthogranuloma and hepatic lipidosis in a Mexican moccasin snake (Agkistrodon bilineatus) with hypercholesterolemia: A case report. J Vet Med Surg 2017;1(3): 1-3.
  3. Raynor LP, Kollias GV, Krook L. Periosseous xantho-granulomatosis in a fledgling great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). J Avian Med Surg 1999; 13(4): 269-274.
  4. Peckham MC. Xanthomatosis in chickens. Am J Vet Res 1955; 16: 580-583.
  5. Haley PJ, Norrdin RW. Periarticular xanthomatosis in an American kestrel. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982; 181(11): 1394-1396.
  6. Monks DJ, Zsivanovits HP, Cooper JE, et al. Successful treatment of tracheal xanthogranulomatosis in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) by tracheal resection and anastomosis. J Avian Med Surg 2006; 20(4): 247-252.
  7. Souza MJ, Johnstone-McLean NS, Ward D, et al. Conjunctival xanthoma in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna). Vet Ophthalmol 2009; 12(1): 53-55.
  8. Lipar M, Horvatek D, Prukner-Radovcic E, et al. Subcutaneous xanthoma in a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) - a case report. Vet Arch 2011; 81(4):535-543.
  9. Girolamo ND, Lane EP, Reyers F, et al. Subcutaneous xanthomatosis in a great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus). J Zoo Wildl Med 2014; 45(1): 153-156.
  10. Gomaa M, Nassan M. Ventral abdominal hernia, xanthoma and hematoma in Egyptian Swift pigeons: Diagnosis and surgical interventions. Indian J Vet Surg 2015; 36(2): 110-112.
  11. Ryan KJ, Ray CJ. Sherris medical microbiology. 4th ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill 2004; 8385-8399.
  12. Chander Y, Ramakrishnan MA, Jindal N, et al. Differentiation of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 2011; 9(2): 138-142.
  13. Razmyar J, Zamani AH. An outbreak of yolk sac infection and dead-in-shell mortality in common canary (Serinus canaria) caused by Klebsiella pneumonia. Iran J Vet Res 2016; 17(2): 141-143.
  14. Harrison GJ, Lightfoot TL. Clinical Avian Medicine. Palm Beach, USA: Spix Publishing 2005; 560.
  15. Jaensch SM, Butler R, O’Hara A, et al. Atypical multiple, papilliform, xanthomatous, cutaneous neoplasia in a goose (Anser anser). Aust Vet J 2002; 80(5): 277-280.