Ultrasonographic examination of the normal caprine neonatal brain

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract

Ultrasonography is a safe, rapid, and non-invasive diagnostic tool that has been previously used for imaging infants and canine neonatal brains. The purpose of the present study was to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the brain in clinically normal caprine neonates. Ultrasonographic examination was done on 12 day-old goat kids, transverse and sagittal transcranial scans were obtained through the frontal bone. Three image planes were recorded through transverse scans including plane I (level of the caudate nucleus), plane II (level of the rostral diencephalon) and plane III (level of the caudal diencephalon). Parallel post mortem examinations were done for two kids that died a day following examination due to accidental trauma by the dam. Reliable and repeatable ultrasonographic images of the goat kid’s brain were described based on the gross post mortem findings. The head of the caudate nucleus was taken as an anatomical landmark in the plane I where it appeared as a curved hyperechoic structure. In plane II, the longitudinal fissure with its characteristic umbrella-like structure was taken as a landmark, while in plane III, the laterally located hyperechoic hippocampus was taken as a landmark. Normal ultrasonographic examination of the caprine neonatal brain represented the basis for diagnosing congenital brain lesions as well as intracranial hemorrhage.

Keywords


  1. Devendra C, McLeroy GB. Goat and sheep production in the tropics. London, UK: Longman 1988; 1-34.
  2. Allen AL, Goupil BA, Valentine BA. A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories. J Vet Diagn Invest 2013; 25(4): 482-489.
  3. Oryan A, Akbari M, Moazeni M, et al. Cerebral and non-cerebral coenurosis in small ruminants. Trop Biomed 2014; 31(1): 1-16.
  4. Cho IC, Park YS, Yoo JG, et al. Two cases of meningocele and meningoencephalocele in Jeju native pigs. BMC Vet Res 2015; 11: 89-92.
  5. Toplu N, Oguzoglu TÇ, Epikmen ET, et al. Neuro-pathologic study of border disease virus in naturally infected fetal and neonatal small ruminants and its association with apoptosis. Vet Pathol 2011; 48(3): 576-583.
  6. Kinde H, Pesavento PA, Loretti AP, et al. Congenital portosystemic shunts and hepatic encephalopathy in goat kids in California: 11 cases (1999-2012). J Vet Diag Invest 2014; 26(1): 173-177.
  7. Radfar MH, Tajalli S, Jalalzadeh M. Prevalence and morphological characterization of Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena cysticerci) from sheep and goat in Iran. Vet Arhiv 2005; 75(6): 469-476.
  8. Babcock DS, Han BK. The accuracy of high resolution, real-time ultrasonography of the head in infancy. Radiology 1981; 139(3): 665-676.
  9. Hudson JA, Simpson ST, Buxton DF, et al. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of canine hydrocephalus. Vet Radiol 1990; 3(2): 56-58.
  10. Lorigados CAB, Pinto ACB. Comparison between ultrasound images of the dog brain with and without calvaria and its correlation with real anatomy. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci 2013; 50(2): 105-113.
  11. Parodi A, Rossi A, Severino M, et al. Accuracy of ultrasound in assessing cerebellar haemorrhages in very low birth weight babies. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2015; 100(4): F289-F292.
  12. Amer MS, Hassan EA, Torad FA, et al. Sequential canine neonatal spinal ultrasonography from birth till spinal ossification. Pak Vet J 2016; 36(1): 6-10.
  13. Hassan EA, Ali KM, Torad FA. Caprine neonatal spinal ultrasonography. Int J Dev Neurosci 2018; 66: 33-36.
  14. Zhou X, Chen L, Feng C, et al. Establishing an animal model of intracerebral hemorrhage under the guidance of ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol 2013; 39(11): 2116-2122.
  15. Vachon L, Mikity V. Computed tomography and ultrasound in purulent ventriculitis. J Ultrasound Med 1987; 6(5): 269-271.
  16. Hagmann CF, Robertson NJ, Leung WC, et al. Foetal brain imaging: Ultrasound or MRI. A comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and a dedicated multidisciplinary neurosonographic opinion. Acta Paediatr 2008; 97(4): 414-419.
  17. Clarkson MJ, Faull WB. Coenuriasis. In: Handbook for the sheep clinician. 4th ed. Liverpool UK: Liverpool
    University Press 1990; 33-38.
  18. Hassan EA, Torad FA, El-Tookhy OS, et al. Canine neonatal transcranial ultrasonography from birth until closure of bregmatic fontanelle. Top Comp Anim Med 2015; 30(1): 5-9.
  19. Waziri MA, Sivachelvan NM, Mustapha AR, et al. Time-related and sequential developmental horizons of Sahel goat fetuses. Sokoto J Vet Sci 2012; 10(2): 32-39.
  20. Ashdown RR, Done SH, Barnett SW. Color atlas of veterinary anatomy, volume 1, the ruminants. 2nd ed. New York, USA: Mosby 2010; 1-44.
  21. Penninck D, Anjou M. Atlas of small animal ultrasonography. 1st ed. Ames, USA: Wiley-Blackwell 2008; 3-33.