Preliminary assessment of electrochemotherapy feasibility in dogs with vesical transitional cell carcinoma

Document Type: Clinical Report

Authors

1 Department of Veterinary Clinic and Surgery, São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

2 Private Veterinary Practitioner, PetClin Clinic, São Paulo, Brazil

3 Private Veterinary Practitioner, ‎ Botucatu Veterinary Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil

4 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Anesthesiology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

5 Institute of Health Sciences, Paulista University - UNIP, Bauru, Brazil

6 Biopulse Ltd., Naples, Italy

Abstract

Electroporation is a technique that increases the uptake of chemotherapeutic drugs by tumors. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) has been successfully used to treat solid tumors. Recently, novel applications have been explored in the treatment of visceral tumors. This report aimed to describe the ECT as an approach to vesical carcinoma in three dogs. The patients received ECT with bleomycin as an intravenous bolus and intra-lesional cisplatin (cases 2 and 3). The ECT was performed by electroporator (Onkodisruptor®) using a plate and/or a single pair needle array electrode. Case 1 was a 7-year-old female Pitbull dog with a history of hematuria and stranguria. The ECT was performed during cystotomy using a single pair array electrode. However, the patient developed uroabdomen two days post-ECT and died 5 days later. Case 2 was a 12-year-old female Poodle dog with hematuria, dysuria, and pollakiuria. Cystotomy and ECT were performed using plate array electrodes. Complete remission of the intra-luminal mass was observed 11 days post-ECT. However, 21 days after the procedure, an acute unilateral renal failure occurred possibly due to a neoplastic embolus into the right ureter leading to kidney hydronephrosis, and the patient was euthanized. Case 3 was a 10-year-old female Cocker dog with hematuria and pollakiuria. The patient was fully competent after ECT without clinical signs of pollakiuria and recovered from hematuria 7 days post-ECT. The bladder returned to normal status 28 days post-ECT. The ECT was not able to increase the overall survival of the patients evaluated and should be indicated carefully.

Keywords


  1. Spugnini EP, Baldi A. Electrochemotherapy in veterinary oncology: State-of-the-art and perspectives. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2019; 49(5):967-979.
  2. Edhemovic I, Gadzijev EM, Brecelj E, et al. Electrochemotherapy: A new technological approach in treatment of metastases in the liver. Technol Cancer Res Treat 2011; 10(5):475-485.
  3. Edhemovic I, Brecelj E, Gasljevic G, et al. Intraoperative electrochemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases. J Surg Oncol 2014; 110(3):320-327.
  4. Tafuto S, von Arx C, De Divitiis C, et al. Electrochemotherapy as a new approach on pancreatic cancer and on liver metastases. Int J Surg 2015; 21(S1): S78-S82.
  5. Gasljevic G, Edhemovic I, Cemazar M, et al. Histo-pathological findings in colorectal liver metastases after electrochemotherapy. PLos One 2017; 12(7): e0180709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0180709.
  6. Spugnini EP, Fais S, Azzarito T, et al. Novel instruments for the implementation of electrochemotherapy protocols: From bench side to veterinary clinic. J Cell Physiol 2017; 232(3): 490-495.
  7. Djokic M, Cemazar M, Popovic P, et al. Electrochemotherapy as treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma, a prospective pilot study. Eur J Surg Oncol 2018; 44(5): 651-657.
  8. Vásquez JL, Ibsen P, Lindberg H, et al. In vitro and in vivo experiments on ‎electrochemotherapy for bladder cancer. J Urol 2015; 193(3): 1009-1015.‎
  9. Fulkerson CM, Knapp DW. Management of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in dogs: A review. Vet J 2015; 205(2): 217-225.
  10. Knapp DW, Ramos-Vara JA, Moore GE, et al. Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development. ILAR J 2014; 55(1): 100-118.
  11. Campana LG, Clover AJP, Valpione S, et al. Recommendations for improving the quality of reporting clinical electrochemotherapy studies based on qualitative systematic review. Radiol Oncol 2016; 50(1):1-13.
  12. Tozon N, Tratar UL, Znidar K, et al. Operating procedures of the electrochemotherapy for treatment of tumor in dogs and cats. J Vis Exp 2016; 116:54760. doi: 10.3791/54760.
  13. Eisenhauer EA, Therasse P, Bogaerts J, et al. New response evaluation criteria in solid tumors: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). Eur J Cancer 2009; 45:228-247.
  14. Owen LN. TNM classification of tumors in domestic animals. Veterinary Public Health Unit and WHO Collaborating Center for Comparative Oncology (‎1980)‎. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/ handle/10665/68618. Accessed 17 August, 2019.
  15. Sersa G, Jarm T, Kotnik T, et al. Vascular disrupting action of electroporation and electrochemotherapy with bleomycin in murine sarcoma. Br J Cancer 2008; 98(2): 388-398.