Histopathological and cytological analyses of endometrium in water ‎buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to detect estrus and endometritis

Document Type : Original Article


1 DVM Graduate, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran


This study aimed to determine cytological, histopathological and cytomorphometrical characteristics of endometrium in healthy and endometritic uterus in the water buffalo. Fifty eight non-pregnant reproductive systems were collected from slaughterhouse. Efficiency of three methods of sampling including cotton swab, smear, and aspiration were compared for cytologic study. Concurrent histopathologic examination revealed endometritis in 38 uteri including 8 (21.00%) with mild endometritis, 7 (18.42%) with moderate endometritis, 6 (15.90%) with severe endometritis and 17 (44.73%) with chronic endometritis. Cytomorphometrical results showed significant relationship between diameter and area of epithelial nuclei with phases of estrus cycle. Neutrophil and lymphocytes densities in swab and aspiration samples were significantly higher in severe endometritis than normal and chronic endometritis samples. Similarly, lymphocytes density in smear and aspiration methods was significant between normal and moderates, and also severe and chronic endometritis. Cytomorphometric analysis of epithelial nuclei characteristics (diameter and area) in buffalo were performed for the first time and it could be valuable to identify estrus cycle in this species. Aspiration had the most efficiency to identify endometritis in comparison with other methods.


Ahmadi MR, Nazifi S. Evaluation of reproductive status with cervical and uterine cytology in fat-tailed sheep. Comp Clin Path 2006; 15(3): 161-164.
Ahmadi MR, Nazifi S, Ghaisari HR, et al. Evaluation of reproductive cycle with cervical and uterine cytology in Iranian dromedary camels. Comp Clin Path 2005; 14(1): 48-51.
Ahmadi MR, Tafti KK, Nazifi S, et al. The comparative evaluation of uterine and cervical mucosa cytology with endometrial histopathology in cows. Comp Clin Path 2005; 14:90-94.
Groppetti D, Pecile A, Arrighi S, et al. Endometrial cytology and computerized morphometric analysis of epithelial nuclei: a useful tool for reproductive diagnosis in the bitch. Theriogenology 2010; 73(7): 927-941.
Nielsen JM. Endometritis in the mare: a diagnostic study comparing cultures from swab and biopsy. Theriogenology 2005; 64(3):510-518.
Overbeck W, Witte TS, Heuwieser W. Comparison of three diagnostic methods to identify subclinical endometritis in mares. Theriogenology 2011; 75(7):1311-1318.
Wingfield Digby NJ, Ricketts SW. Results of concurrent bacteriological and cytological examinations of the endometrium of mares in routine stud farm practice 1978-1981. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 1982; 32:181-185.
Gilbert RO, Shin ST, Guard CL, et al. Prevalence of endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of dairy cows. Theriogenology 2005; 64(9):1879-1888.
Sheldon IM, Dobson H. Postpartum uterine health in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 2004; 82-83:295-306.
Fourichon C, Seegers H, Malher X. Effect of disease on reproduction in the dairy cow: a meta-analysis. Theriogenology 2000; 53(9):1729-1759.
Heuwieser W, Tenhagen BA, Tischer M, et al. Effect of three programmes for the treatment of endometritis on the reproductive performance of a dairy herd. Vet Rec 2000; 146(12): 338-341.
Azawi OI. Uterine infection in Buffalo cows: a review Buffalo Bull 2010; 29(3):154-171.
Azawi OI, Ali AJ. A study on the prevalence of some pathological abnormalities of the uterus diagnosed at post mortem of buffaloes in Mosul. Buffalo Bull 2011; 30(1):67-71.
Gahlot SC, Kumar S, Kumaresan A, et al. Efficiency of uterine fluid cytology in the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Reprod Domest Anim 2017; 52(3):513-516.
Moghami SM, Saiyari M, Mayatri M, et al. Pathology of uterus in buffalo slaughtered in Ahwaz (Iran) abattoir. Buffalo J 1996; 12: 213-218.
Hanafi EM, Ahmed WM, Abd El Moez SI, et al. Effect of clinical endometritis on ovarian activity and oxidative stress status in Egyptian buffalo-cows. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 2008; 4(5): 530-536.
Sheldon IM, Williams EJ, Miller ANA, et al. Uterine diseases in cattle after parturition. Vet J 2008; 176(1-3):115-121.
Ireland JJ, Murphee RL, Coulson PB. Accuracy of predicting stages of bovine estrous cycle by gross appearance of the corpus luteum. J Dairy Sci 1980; 63(1):155-160.
Watts JR, Wright PJ, Lee CS, et al. New techniques using transcervical uterine cannulation for the diagnosis of uterine disorders in bitches. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 1997; 51:283-293.
Schlafer DH, Foster RA. Female genital system. In: Maxie MG (Ed). Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s pathology of domestic animals. 6th ed. Missouri, USA: Elsevier 2016; 388-390.
Chethan SG, Singh SK, Karikalan M, et al. Histopathological evaluation of important uterine pathological affections in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): an abattoir study. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 2015; 10(8): 406-415.
Ghanem M, Shalaby AH, Sharawy S, et al. Factors leading to endometritis in Egypt with special reference to reproductive performance. J Reprod dev 2002; 48(4):371-375.
Sar GC, Mohunty BN, Ray SKH, et al. Endometrial biopsy in infertile cows. Indian J Anim Sci 1996; 66:1100-1105.
Oliveira LJ, Mansourri-Attia N, Fahey AG, et al. Characterization of the Th profile of the bovine endometrium during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy. PLoS ONE 8(10): e75571. doi 10.1371/ journal.pone.0075571.
Bourke M, Mills JN, Barnes AL. Collection of endometrial cells in the mare. Aust Vet J 1997; 75(10):755-758.
Cocchia N, Paciello O, Auletta L, et al. Comparison of the cytobrush, cottonswab, and low-volume uterine flush techniques to evaluate endometrial cytology for diagnosing endometritis in chronically infertile mares. Theriogenology 2012; 77(1):89-98.
Kasimanickam R, Duffield TF, Foster RA, et al. A comparison of cytobrush and uterine lavage techniques to evaluate endometrial cytology in clinically normal postpartum dairy cows. Can Vet J 2005; 46(3):255-259.
LeBlanc MM, Magsig J, Stromberg AJ. Use of a low-volume uterine flush for diagnosing endometritis in chronically infertile mares. Theriogenology 2007; 68(3):403-412.