This study was conducted to investigate the effects of recycled poultry bedding (RPB) treated with different levels of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) as a tannin source on cellulolytic bacterial population and rumen fermentation parameters of fattening lambs. For this purpose, twenty-eight Arabian lambs (19.70 ± 2.45 kg body weight, 90 ± 12 days of age) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments. Recycled poultry bedding was treated with PPE at four levels of 0 (control), 20.00, 25.00 and 30.00% on DM basis. Bacterial populations were enumerated by DNA extraction of samples of rumen liquor followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Also, rumen samples were evaluated for pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and ammonia nitrogen (AN) concentrations. The populations of total bacteria, Ruminococcusalbus and Fibrobacter succinogenes were decreased significantly as the level of PPE in the diet increased, however, the population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was not affected. Dietary treatments did not have effect on ruminal pH, while AN concentration was decreased in the diets containing RPB treated with PPE compared to the control. Concentrations of total VFA and individual VFA remained unchanged by PPE-treated RPB inclusion in the diet. In conclusion, supplementing RPB with PPE improved nitrogen metabolism of fattening lambs, however, it decreased population of rumen cellulolytic bacteria R. flavefaciens.