Comparison of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Capparis spinosa fruit, quercetin and vitamin E on monosodium glutamate-induced toxicity in rats

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran

2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

Capparis spinosa L. has many biological effects such as antioxidant properties. In the present study, we compared the effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Capparis spinosa fruit, quercetin (Q), and vitamin E (Vit E) on monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced toxicity. The following groups were designed: Control groups (normal saline and/or corn oil); MSG group (4.00 g kg-1 MSG); MSG + low dose extract group (4.00 g kg-1 MSG with 100.00 mg kg-1 extract); MSG + high dose extract (HDE) group (4.00 g kg-1 MSG with 300.00 mg kg-1 extract); MSG + Q group (4.00 g kg-1 MSG with 10.00 mg kg-1 Q); MSG + Vit E group (4.00 g kg-1 MSG with 200.00 mg kg-1 Vit E). All chemicals were orally administered for 14 consecutive days. Tissue specimens from the heart, kidney, and liver tissues and blood samples were collected for histopathological and biochemical evaluations. The results showed that the MSG-induced tissue edema, congestion, and inflammatory cell infiltration were resolved by HDE, Q, and Vit E treatments. These chemicals also restored tissue malondialdehyde level and superoxide dismutase activity. Besides, alterations induced by MSG in serum levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB were also resolved. It is concluded that Capparis spinosa fruit extract, Q and Vit E can produce approximately similar protective effects on tissue function through oxidative stress alleviation and antioxidant mechanisms restoration.

Keywords


 

  1. Samuels A. The toxicity/safety of free glutamic acid (MSG): a study in suppression of information. Account Res 1999; 6(4): 259-310.
  2. Walker R, Lupien JR. The safety evaluation of monosodium glutamate. J Nutr 2000; 130(4S suppl): 1049S-1052S.
  3. Sharma A. Monosodium glutamate-induced oxidative kidney damage and ‎possible mechanisms: a mini-review. J Biomed Sci 2015; 22: 93. doi: ‎‎10.1186/s12929-015-0192-5.‎
  4. Hashem HE, El-Din Safwat MD, Algaidi S. The effect of monosodium glutamate on the cerebellar cortex of male albino rats and the protective effects of vitamin C (histopathological and immunohistochemical study). J Mol Histol 2012; 43(2): 179-186.
  5. Oritz GG, Bitzer-Quintero OK, Zárate CB, et al. Monosodium glutamate-induced damage in liver and kidney: a morphological and biochemical approach. Biomed Pharmacother 2006; 60(2): 86-91.
  6. Paul S, Mohanan A, Varghese MV, et al. Ameliorative effect of α-tocopherol on monosodium glutamate-induced cardiac histological alterations and oxidative stress. J Sci Food Agric 2012; 92(15): 3002-3006.
  7. Khalaf HA, Arafat EA. Effect of different doses of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats: a histological study. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015; 8(12): 15498-15510.
  8. Farombi EO, Onyema OO. Monosodium glutamate-induced oxidative damage and genotoxicity in the rat: Modulatory role of vitamin C, vitamin E and quercetin. Hum Exp Toxicol 2006; 25(5): 251-259.
  9. Tlili N, Elfalleh W. Saadaoui E, et al. The caper (Capparis L.): ethnopharmacology, phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Fitoterapia 2011; 82(2): 93-101.
  10. Kazemian M, Abad M, Haeri MR, et al. Anti-diabetic effects of Capparis spinosa L. root extract in diabetic rats. Avicenna J Phytomed 2015; 5(4): 325-332.
  11. Nabavi SF, Maggi F, Daglia M, et al. Pharmacological effects of Capparis spinosa L. Phytother Res 2016; 30(11): 1733-1744.
  12. Eddouks M, Lemhadri A, Hebi M, et al. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Avicenna J Phytomed 2017; 7(2):191-198.
  13. Tlili N, Khaldi A, Triki S, et al. Phenolic compounds and vitamin antioxidants of caper (Capparis spinosa). Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2010; 65(3): 260-265.
  14. Cao YL, Li X, Zheng M. Capparis spinosa protects against oxidative stress in systemic sclerosis dermal fibroblasts. Arch Dermatol Res 2010; 302(5):
    349-355.
  15. Panico AM, Cardile V, Garufi F, et al. Protective effect of Capparis pinosa on chondrocytes. Life Sci 2005; 77(20): 2479-2488.
  16. Goel A, Digvijaya, Garg A, et al. Effect of Capparis spinosa Linn. extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2016; 54(2): 126-132.
  17. Anand David AV, Arulmoli R, Parasuraman S. Overview of biological importance of quercetin: a bioactive flavonoid. Pharmacogn Rev 2016; 10(20): 84-89.
  18. Galli F, Azzi A, Birringer M, et al. Vitamin E: Emerging aspects and new directions. Free Radic Biol Med 2017; 102: 16-36.
  19. Rahmani R, Mahmoodi M, Karimi M, et al. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Capparis spinosa fruit on blood sugar and lipid profile of diabetic and normal rats. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 2013; 15(11): 34-38.
  20. Hashemnia M, Oryan A, Hamidi AR, et al. Blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with hydro-ethanol extracts of Allium sativum and Capparis spinosa. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2012; 6(21): 1559-1564.
  21. Tawfik MS, Al-Badr N. Adverse effects of monosodium glutamate on liver and kidney functions in adult rats and potential protective effect of vitamins C and E. Food Nutr Sci 2012: 3: 651-659.
  22. Farshid AA, Tamaddonfard E, Moradi-Arzeloo M, et al. The effects of crocin, insulin and their co-administration on the heart function and pathology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Avicenna J Phytomed 2016: 6(6): 658-670.
  23. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxidase in normal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979; 95(2): 351-358.
  24. Sun Y, Oberley LW, Li Y. A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase. Clin Chem 1988; 34(3): 497-500.
  25. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, et al. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951; 193(1): 265-275.
  26. Paul MV, Abhilash M, Varghese MV, et al. Protective effects of α-tocopherol against oxidative stress related to nephrotoxicity by monosodium glutamate in rats. Toxicol Mech Methods 2012; 22(8): 625-630.
  27. El-Meghawry El-Kenawy A, Osman HE, Daghestani MH. The effect of vitamin C administration on monosodium glutamate-induced liver injury: An experimental study. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2013; 65(5): 513-521.
  28. Diniz YS, Fernandes AA, Campos KE, et al. Toxicity of hypercaloric diet and monosodium glutamate: oxidative stress and metabolic shifting in hepatic tissue. Food Chem Toxicol 2004; 42(2): 313-319.
  29. Gill SS, Pulido OM. Glutamate receptors in peripheral tissues: current knowledge, future research and implications for toxicology. Toxicol Pathol 2001;
    29(2): 208-223.
  30. Mousavi SH, Hosseini A, Bakhtiari E, et al. Capparis spinosa reduces doxorubicin-induced cardio-toxicity in cardiomyoblast cells. Avicenna J Phytomed 2016; 6(5): 488-494.
  31. Yu L, Yang J, Wang X, et al. Antioxidant and antitumor activities of Capparis spinosa L. and the related mechanisms. Oncol Rep 2017; 37(1): 357-367.
  32. Jalali MT, Mohammadtaghvaei N, Larky DA. Investigating the effects of Capparis spinosa on hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid content in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2016; 84: 1243-1248.
  33. Tlili N, Feriani A, Saadoui E, et al. Capparis spinosa leaves extract: source of bioantioxidants with nephroprotective and hepatoprotective effects. Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 87: 171-179.
  34. Hamuti A, Li J, Zhou F, et al. Capparis spinose fruit ethanol extracts exert different effects on the maturation of dendritic cells. Molecules 2017; 22(1): E97. doi: 10.3390/molecules22010097.
  35. ┼×engül E, Gelen V, Gedikli S, et al. The protective effect of quercetin on cyclophosphamide-induced lung toxicity in rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 92: 303-307.
  36. Baltaci BB, Uygur R, Caglar V, et al. Protective effects of quercetin against arsenic-induced testicular damage in rats. Andrologia 2016; 48(10): 1202-1213.
  37. Abarikwu SO. Protective effect of quercetin on atrazine-induced oxidative stress in the liver, kidney, brain, and heart of adult wistar rats. Toxicol Int 2014; 21(2): 148-155.
  38. Boots AW, Haenen GR, Bast A. Health effects of quercetin: From antioxidant to nutraceutical. Eur J Pharmacol 2008; 583(2-3): 325-337.
  39. Chen JY, Hu RY, Chou HC. Quercetin-induced cardio-protection against doxorubicin cytotoxicity. J Biomed Sci 2013; 20: 95. doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-20-95.
  40. Sedky A, Mahboub F, Elsawy H, et al. Protective potential of quercetin on Cd-induced hepatorenal damage. Pol J Environ Stud 2017; 26(5):2197-2205.
  41. Onyema OO, Farombi EO, Emerole GO, et al. Effect of vitamin E on monosodium glutamate induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2006; 43(1): 20-24.