Document Type : Original Article


1 DVSc Candidate, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University , Urmia, Iran‎

2 Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Tanacetum balsamita (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant previously used in human medicine to solve gastrointestinal problems such as abdominal pain. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immune-modulatory, and antioxidant effects of T. balsamita have been proven in previous studies. The present study investigated the effects of T. balsamita essential oil (TBEO) on ruminant smooth muscle contractions. The experiment was performed on the circular smooth muscle of ileum samples taken from slaughtered bulls in the organ bath. Nine cumulative concentrations of TBEO from 0.10 to 1000 µg mL-1 were added to tissue samples. The solution used was Tyrode’s solution aerated with a mixture of 95.00% oxygen and 5.00% carbon dioxide, and the temperature was set at 37.00 ˚C. The effect of TBEO on baseline contractions and three induced contractions with potassium chloride, barium chloride, and carbachol was investigated. In GC-MS analysis of TBEO, carvone was identified as a major ingredient. The effects of eight concentrations of 0.001 to 10.00 µM of carvone on all contractions were investigated under similar conditions. The effects of TBEO, carvone, and verapamil (standard calcium channel blocker) on calcium channels were assessed. The results revealed that TBEO and carvone significantly inhibit spontaneous contractions as well as all spasmogen-induced contractions. The TBEO and carvone exert their myorelaxant properties by inhibiting Ca++ channels in smooth muscle. The anti-spasmodic properties of T. balsamita can be employed for the treatment of intestinal spasms or hypermotility.



    1. Constable PD, Hinchclif KW, Done SH, et al. Veterinary medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats. 11th New York, USA: Elsevier Health Sciences 2017; 176-908.
    2. Szymaszkiewicz A, Włodarczyk J, Mazur M, et al. Cyclic derivatives of morphiceptin possess anti-transit effect in the gastrointestinal tract and alleviate abdominal pain in mice. Pharmacol Rep 2020; 72(2): 314-321.
    3. Graziani C, Talocco C, De Sire R, et al. Intestinal permeability in physiological and pathological conditions: major determinants and assessment modalities. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2019; 23(2): 795-810.
    4. Fecteau G, Desrochers A, Francoz D, et al. Diagnostic approach to the acute abdomen. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2018; 34(1): 19-33.
    5. El Mahdy C, Popescu S, Borda C, et al. Plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine in cows. A Review. Bull UASVM Anim Sci Biotechnol 2019; 76(2): 61-76.
    6. Mozaffarian V. Dictionary of Iranian plant names: Latin, English, Persian. 2nd Costa Mesa, USA: Mazda Publishers 1998; 244.
    7. Sharif M, Najafizadeh P, Asgarpanah J, et al. In vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from Tanacetum balsamita Braz J Pharm Sci 2020; 56: e18357. doi:10.1590/s2175-97902019000418357.
    8. Nickavar B, Amin G, Mehregan N. Quercetine, a major flavonol aglycon from Tanacetum balsamita Iran J Pharm Res 2003; 2(4): 249-250.
    9. Ivănescu B, Tuchiluș C, Corciovă A, et al. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Tanacetum vulgare, Tanacetum corymbosum and Tanacetum macrophyllum Farmacia 2018; 66(2):
    10. Latifian E, Arslanoğlu ŞF. Traditional medicinal plants of Azerbaijan province of Iran. Agric Sci 2018; 9: 157-170.
    11. Karami A, Khatibjoo A, Akbari Gharaei M, et al. Considering the effect of Tanacetum balsamita essential oil on broiler chickens performance, meat quality and ileal microbial population. Iran J Anim Sci Res 2019; 11(1): 73-84.
    12. Bączek KB, Kosakowska O, Przybył JL, et al. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of essential oils and extracts from costmary (Tanacetum balsamita) and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.). Ind Crops Prod 2017; 102: 154-163.
    13. Kazemzadeh M, Yaghmaei P, Mohammadi S. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Tanacetum balsamita essential oil and one of its major constituents (quercetin) in male rats. Clin Neurol Neurosci 2017; 1(3): 60-66.
    14. Yousefzadi M, Ebrahimi SN, Sonboli A, et al. Cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity and composition of essential oil from Tanacetum balsamita subsp. balsamita. Nat Prod Commun 2009; 4(1): 119-122.
    15. Nobakht A, Hosseini Mansoub N, Nezhady MAM. Effect of Melissa officinalis, Tanacetum balsamita L. and Ziziphora clinopodioides L. on performance, blood biochemical and immunity parameters of laying hens. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 2012; 7(1): 74-79.
    16. Mărculescu A. Contribution to the clinical study of chemical taxa from the species Chrysanthemum balsamita [French]. Phytotherapie 2013; 11(4): 219-224.
    17. Barsby RW J, Knight DW, McFadzean I. A chloroform extract of the herb feverfew blocks voltage‐ dependent potassium currents recorded from single smooth muscle cells. J Pharm Pharmacol 1993; 45(7): 641-645.
    18. Barsby RW, Salan U, Knight DW, et al. Feverfew extracts and parthenolide irreversibly inhibit vascular responses of the rabbit aorta. J Pharm Pharmacol 1992; 44(9): 737-740.
    19. Lahlou S, Tangi KC, Lyoussi B, et al. Vascular effects of Tanacetum vulgare leaf extract: in vitro pharma-cological study. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 120(1): 98-102.
    20. Younis YMH, Beshir SM. Carvone-rich essential oils from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. schimperi and Mentha spicata L. Grown in Sudan. J Essent Oil Res 2004; 16(6): 539-541.
    21. Başer KHC, Demirci B, Tabanca N, et al. Composition of the essential oils of Tanacetum armenum (DC.) Schultz Bip., balsamita L., T. chiliophyllum (Fisch. & Mey.) Schultz Bip. var. chiliophyllum and T. haradjani (Rech. fil.) Grierson and the enantiomeric distribution of camphor and carvone. Flavour Fragr J 2001; 16: 195-200.
    22. Kundu S, Shabir H, Basir SF, et al. Inhibition of As(III) and Hg(II) caused aortic hypercontraction by eugenol, linalool and carvone. J Smooth Muscle Res 2014; 50: 93-102.
    23. Souza FVM, da Rocha MB, de Souza DP, et al. (-)-Carvone: antispasmodic effect and mode of action. Fitoterapia 2013; 85: 20-24.
    24. Mendel M, Chłopecka M, Latek U, et al. Evaluation of the effects of Bidens tripartita extracts and their main constituents on intestinal motility – An ex vivo J Ethnopharmacol 2020; 259: 112982. doi:10.1016/ j.jep.2020.112982.
    25. Gilani AH, Bukhari IA, Khan RA, et al. Cholinomimetic and calcium channel blocking activities of Carthamus oxycantha. Phytother Res 2005; 19(8), 679-683.
    26. Jalilzadeh-Amin G, Maham M, Dalir-Naghadeh B, et al. Effects of Mentha longifolia essential oil on ruminal and abomasal longitudinal smooth muscle in sheep. J Essent Oil Res 2012; 24(1): 61-69.
    27. Mohseni M, Maham M, Dalir-Naghadeh B, et al. Does Achillea millefolium extracts possess prokinetic effects on the bovine abomasum thourgh M3 muscarinic receptors? Vet Res forum 2017; 8(2): 115-120.
    28. Ching MOY, Chinnappan S, Rajagopal MS. In vitro anti-motility and antispasmodic effects of Garcinia mangostana extracts in isolated chicken ileum preparation. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2019; 10(2):
    29. Guerra DD, Bok R, Lorca RA, et al. Protein kinase A facilitates relaxation of mouse ileum via phosphorylation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Br J Pharmacol 2020; 177(12): 2765-2778.
    30. Afzal A, Khan A, Ajmal K, et al. Effect of fluoxetine and paroxetine on intestinal motility in presence of ondansetron in ex-vivo Life Sci 2020; 1(3): 5. doi:10.37185/LnS.1.1.58.
    31. Unterköfler MS, McGorum BC, Milne EM, et al. Establishment of a model for equine small intestinal disease: effects of extracorporeal blood perfusion of equine ileum on metabolic variables and histological morphology-an experimental ex vivo BMC Vet Res 2019; 15(1): doi: 0.1186/s12917-019-2145-9.
    32. Zanolari P, Meylan M, Marti M, et al. In vitro effects of bethanechol on intestinal smooth muscle preparations in presence and absence of M2 or M3 muscarinic receptor antagonists in healthy dairy cows. Dtsch Tierärztl Wschr 2007; 114: 171-177.
    33. Ansia I, Stein HH, Brøkner C, et al. Short communication: A pilot study to describe duodenal and ileal flows of nutrients and to estimate small intestine endogenous protein losses in weaned calves. J Dairy Sci 2020; 103(10): 9102-9109.
    34. Khodakaram-Tafti A, Farjanikish GH. Persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in cattle herds. Iran J Vet Res 2017; 18(3): 154-163.
    35. Albarrak SM, Waters WR, Stabel JR, et al. Evaluating the cytokine profile of the WC1+ γδ T cell subset in the ileum of cattle with the subclinical and clinical forms of MAP infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2018; 201: 26-31.
    36. Balemba OB, Mbassa GK, Semuguruka WD, et al. The topography, architecture and structure of the enteric nervous system in the jejunum and ileum of cattle. J Anat 1999; 195(Pt 1): 1-9.
    37. Shahhoseini R, Azizi M, Asili J, et al. Comprehensive assessment of phytochemical potential of Tanacetum parthenium (L.): phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, essential oil and parthenolide. J Essent Oil-Bear Plants 2019; 22(3): 614-629.
    38. Monfared A, Hosseiny Davarani SS, Rustaiyan A, et al. Composition of the essential oil of Tanacetum balsamita ssp. balsamitoides (Schultz Bip.) Grierson from Iran. J Essent Oil Res 2002; 14(1): 1-2.
    39. Jaimand K, Rezaee MB. Chemical constituents of essential oils from Tanacetum balsamita ssp. balsamitoides (Schultz-Bip.) Grierson. from Iran. J Essent Oil Res 2005; 17(5): 565-566.
    40. Kumar V, Tyagi D. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of genus Tanacetum - a review. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2013; 2(3): 159-163.
    41. Mohammedi H, Mecherara-Idjeri S, Hassani A. Variability in essential oil composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Ruta montana L. collected from different geographical regions in Algeria. J Essent Oil Res 2020; 32(3): doi: 10.1080/10412905. 2019.1660238.
    42. de Sousa DP, Mesquita RF, de Araújo Ribeiro LA, et al. Spasmolytic activity of Carvone and Limonene Enantiomers. Nat Prod Commun 2015; 10(11): 1893-1896.
    43. Madeira SVF, Matos FJA, Leal-Cardoso JH, et al. Relaxant effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum on isolated ileum of the guinea pig. J Ethnopharmacol 2002; 81(1): 1-4.
    44. Pareek A, Suthar M, Rathore GS, et al. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium): A systematic review. Pharmacogn Rev 2011; 5(9): 103-110.
    45. Orhan IE, Tosun F, Gülpinar AR, et al. LC-MS quantification of parthenolide and cholinesterase inhibitory potential of selected Tanacetum L. (Emend. Briq.) taxa. Phytochem Lett 2015; 11: 347-352.
    46. Aleem A, Janbaz KH. Dual mechanisms of anti-muscarinic and Ca++ antagonistic activities to validate the folkloric uses of Cyperus niveus as antispasmodic and antidiarrheal. J Ethnopharmacol 2018; 213: 138-148.
    47. Mullowney PC, Patterson WH. Therapeutic agents used in the treatment of calf diarrhea. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1985; 1(3): 563-579.
    48. Smith BP. Large animal internal medicine. 5th ed. St. Louis, USA: Mosby, Elsevier Inc. 2015; 897-903.