Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Research Department of Chromatography, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Urmia, Iran‎


The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of season and fish species on the antioxidant capacity, fatty acids profile, and vitamin E content of fish fillets from Aras River. The antioxidant potential of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of fish fillets was evaluated. The fillet extracts of zander and bream in summer and common carp in winter had the highest antioxidant activity. Palmitic and oleic acids were the major saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids, respectively. The fatty acids C22:6n3 and C20:5n3 were the most abundant polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids in all the fishes. In summer, the highest levels of SFA (44.09), total PUFA (25.97), n3 PUFA (20.71) and n3/n6 ratio (4) were found in zander. In winter, the highest amounts of total PUFA and n3 PUFA were determined in silver carp, followed by zander. The highest n3/n6 ratio was also found in silver carp. The ratio of PUFA/SFA was higher in winter than in summer for all the fishes. Vitamin E content of fishes was largely varied. In conclusion, seasonal variation changed the antioxidant potential and fatty acid composition of fish fillets. Aras River fishes, especially zander, possess excellent antioxidant activity and high nutritional quality.



    1. Sidhu KS. Health benefits and potential risks related to consumption of fish or fish oil. Regul Toxicol Pharmcol 2003; 38(3): 336-344.
    2. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 2002; 56(8): 365-379.
    3. Arab-Tehrany E, Jacquot M, Gaiani C, et al. Beneficial effects and oxidative stability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Trends Food Sci Technol 2012; 25(1): 24-33.
    4. Domingo JL. Omega-3 fatty acids and the benefits of fish consumption: is all that glitters gold? Environ Int 2007; 33(7): 993-998.
    5. Guler GO, Aktumsek A, Citil OB, et al. Seasonal variations on total fatty acid composition of fillets of zander (Sander lucioperca) in Beysehir Lake (Turkey). Food Chem 2007; 103(4): 1241-1246.
    6. Guler G, Kiztanir B, Aktumsek A, et al. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 ratios of carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle lipids in Beysehir Lake (Turkey). Food Chem 2008; 108(2): 689-694.
    7. Henderson RJ, Tocher DR. The lipid composition and biochemistry of freshwater fish. Prog Lipid Res 1987; 26(4): 281-347.
    8. Kaçar S, Başhan M, Oymak SA. Effect of seasonal variation on lipid and fatty acid profile in muscle tissue of male and female Silurus triostegus. J Food Sci Technol 2016; 53(7): 2913-2922.
    9. Shirai N, Suzuki H, Tokairin S, et al. Dietary and seasonal effects on the dorsal meat lipid composition of Japanese (Silurus asotus) and Thai catfish (Clarias macrocephalus and hybrid Clarias macrocephalus and Clarias galipinus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2002; 132(3):609-619.
    10. Çaglak E, Karsli B. Seasonal variation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in the muscle tissue of zander (Sander Lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758) and the evaluation of important indexes related to human health. Ital J Food Sci 2017; 29(2): 266-275.
    11. Ljubojević D, Trbovic D, Lujic J, et al. Fatty acid composition of fishes from inland waters. Bulg J Agric Sci 2013; 19(1): 62-71.
    12. Łuczyńska J, Paszczyk B, Borejszo Z, et al. Fatty acid profile of muscles of freshwater fish from Olsztyn markets. Pol J Food Nutr Sci 2012; 62(1): 51-55.
    13. Pyz-Łukasik R, Kowalczyk-Pecka D. Fatty acid profile of fat of Grass carp, Bighead carp, Siberian sturgeon, and Wels catfish. J Food Qual 2017; 2017.
    14. Yeganeh S, Shabanpour B, Hosseini H, et al. Comparison of farmed and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio): seasonal variations in chemical composition and fatty acid profile. Czech J Food Sci 2012; 30(6): 503-511.
    15. Guler GO, Aktumsek A, Cakmak YS, et al. Effect of season on fatty acid composition and n‐3/n‐6 ratios of zander and carp muscle lipids in Altinapa Dam Lake. J Food Sci 2011; 76(4): C594-C597.
    16. Kalyoncu L, Yaman Y, Aktumsek A. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio), in İvriz Dam Lake, Turkey. Afr J Biotechnol 2010; 9(25): 3896-3900.
    17. Lin C-C, Lin C-S. Enhancement of the storage quality of frozen bonito fillets by glazing with tea extracts. Food Control 2005; 16(2): 169-175.
    18. Barbosa DS, Cecchini R, El Kadri MZ, et al. Decreased oxidative stress in patients with ulcerative colitis supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids. Nutrition 2003; 19(10): 837-842.
    19. Di Giulio RT, Meyer JN. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. In: Di Giulio RT, Hinton DE (Eds). The toxicology of fishes. 1st Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press 2008; 273-324.
    20. Khanum MN, Yamaguchi T, Hiroishi S, et al. Radical-scavenging activities of fish and fishery products. Food Sci Technol Res 1999; 5(2): 193-199.
    21. Passi S, Cataudella S, Di Marco P, et al. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant levels in muscle tissue of different Mediterranean marine species of fish and shellfish. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50(25): 7314-7322.
    22. Zzaman W, Suseno SH, Nadiah WA, et al. Fatty acid profile and antioxidant capacity of muscle and by product oil from selected fresh water fish. Food Sci Technol 2014; 2(3): 41-46.
    23. Cabrini L, Landi L, Stefanelli C, et al. Extraction of lipids and lipophilic antioxidants from fish tissues: a comparison among different methods. Comp Biochem Physiol B 1992; 101(3): 383-386.
    24. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, et al. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Bio Med 1999; 26(9-10): 1231-1237.
    25. Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free Nature 1958; 181(4617): 1199-1200.
    26. Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activity of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr Diet 1986; 44(6): 307-315.
    27. Barthet VJ, Chornick T, Daun JK. Comparison of methods to measure the oil contents in oilseeds. J Oleo Sci 2002; 51(9): 589-597.
    28. Sadrykia F, Shayanfar A, Valizadeh H, et al. A fast and simple method for determination of vitamin E in infant formula by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with HPLC-UV. Food Anal Method 2019; 12(1): 23-31.
    29. Bhadra A, Yamaguchi T, Takamura H, et al. Radical-scavenging activity: role of antioxidative vitamins in some fish species. Food Sci Technol Res 2004; 10(3): 264-267.
    30. Çelik M, Diler A, Küçükgülmez A. A comparison of the proximate compositions and fatty acid profiles of zander (Sander lucioperca) from two different regions and climatic conditions. Food Chem 2005; 92(4): 637-641.
    31. Özogul Y, Özogul F, Alagoz S. Fatty acid profiles and fat contents of commercially important seawater and freshwater fish species of Turkey: a comparative study. Food Chem 2007; 103: 217-223.
    32. Ackman RG, Eaton CA, Linke BA. Differentiation of freshwater characteristics of fatty-acids in marine specimens of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus). Fish Bull 1975;73(4):838-845.
    33. Uysal K, Aksoylar MY. Seasonal variations in fatty acid composition and the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) muscle lipids. Ecol Food Nutr 2005; 44(1): 23-35.
    34. Leaf A, Weber PC. Cardiovascular effects of n-3 fatty acids. New Engl J Med 1988; 318(9): 549-557.
    35. Sargent JR. Fish oils and human diet. Br J Nutr 1997; 78 (Suppl 1): S5-S13.
    36. Piggott GM, Tucker BW. Seafood: Effects of technology on nutrition. 1st New York, USA: CRC Press; 1990; 137-175.
    37. HMSO (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office). Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease (report on health and social subjects No. 46). London, UK: 1994.
    38. National Research Council (US) Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1989. PMID: 25144070.
    39. Rizvi S, Raza ST, Ahmed F, et al. The role of vitamin E in human health and some diseases. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2014; 14(2): e157-e165.
    40. Frigg M, Prabucki AL, Ruhdel EU. Effect of dietary vitamin E levels on oxidative stability of trout fillets. Aquaculture 1990; 84(2): 145-158.
    41. Hamre K, Christiansen R, Waagbø R, et al. Antioxidant vitamins, minerals and lipid levels in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.): effects on growth performance and fillet quality. Aquac Nutr 2004; 10(2): 113-123.