Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

3 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Phthalates are environmental contaminants mostly used as plasticizers and additives in different products. Having endocrine-disrupting properties, phthalates are known as potential reproductive toxicants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in pregnant rats and their offspring and also to assess the ability of vitamin E in the elimination or reducing reproductive toxicity of DBP. Sixty-six pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 100, 500 or 1,000 mg kg-1 per day DBP or 500 mg kg-1 per day DBP along with 100 mg kg-1 per day vitamin E during gestation. After delivery, they were divided into two groups. In one group gavage was finished after litter while in the other DBP administration was continued till weaning. The results showed that DBP affected many aspects of reproductive performance in pregnant rats and their offspring. It could be suggested that vitamin E could ameliorate the adverse effects of DBP, especially in male pups.


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