Document Type : Original Article
Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
The developmental morphology of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) of broiler chicken was evaluated in this study using gross anatomical, histological, reticulin histo-chemical, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. The result showed that the short plica of the BF at embryonic day (ED) 14 was a mesenchymal tissue that contained cells, including mesenchymal cells and lymphoblasts. The organo-somatic index (OSI) of the BF peaked at ED 17, while the BF of ED 19 showed well delineated follicle-associated and inter-follicular epithelial (IFE) cells. Whereas, the IFE contained apical vacuoles which increased in size with age, the BF contained lymphoid follicles which were first observed at ED 17, and increased steadily in mean diameter from ED 19 to post-hatch day (PD) 28. The framework of the inter-follicular areas and the follicular capsules were composed of collagen type III fibres. Moreover, the cortico-medullary basement membranes were well established with peripheral and cortico-medullary basement capillaries becoming very consistent between PDs 5 and 7. The lymphoid follicle contained lymphocytes with mitotic figures, and plasma cells which showed extensive network of rough endoplasmic reticulum at PD 21, while macrophages contained increasing evidence of phagocytosis from PDs 35 to 56. In conclusion, the morphological features of the BF of broiler chicken in this study reveals that the key function of B-cell maturation within the BF may occur between the first 3 to 4 weeks after hatching, and thereafter, may primarily produce immunoglobulins until involution occurs.
- Nagy N, Magyar A, Dávid C, et al. Development of the follicle-associated epithelium and the secretory dendritic cell in the bursa of fabricius of the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) studied by novel monoclonal antibodies. Anat Rec 2001; 262(3): 279-292.
- Casteleyn C, Doom M, Lambrechts E, et al. Locations of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the 3-month-old chicken: a review. Avian Pathol 2010; 39(3):143-150.
- Fellah JS, Jaffredo T, Nagy N, et al. Development of the avian immune system. In: Schat KA, Kaspers B, Kaiser P (Eds). Avian immunology. 2nd Massachusetts, USA: Academic Press 2012; 45-63.
- Oláh I, Glick B, Törö I. Bursal development in normal and testosterone-treated chick embryos. Poult Sci 1986; 65(3): 574-588.
- Nagy N, Magyar A, Tóth M, et al. Origin of the bursal secretory dendritic cell. Anat Embryol (Berl) 2004; 208(2): 97-107.
- Nagy N, Oláh I. Experimental evidence for the ectoder-mal origin of the epithelial anlage of the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Development 2010; 137(18): 3019-3023.
- Lampisuo M, Arstila TP, Liippo J, et al. Expression of chL12 surface antigen is associated with cell survival in the avian bursa of Fabricius. Scand J Immunol 1998; 47(3), 223-228.
- Benatar T, Iacampo S, Tkalec L, et al. Expression of immunoglobulin genes in the avian embryo bone marrow revealed by retroviral transformation. Eur J Immunol 1991; 21(10): 2529-2536.
- Ratcliffe MJH, Härtle S. B Cells, the bursa of Fabricius and the generation of antibody repertoires. In: Schat KA, Kaspers B, Kaiser P (Eds). Avian immunology. 2nd Massachusetts, USA: Academic Press 2012; 65-89.
- Drayton DL, Liao S, Mounzer RH, et al. Lymphoid organ development: from ontogeny to neogenesis. Nat Immunol 2006; 7(4): 344-353.
- Shiojiri N, Takahashi M. Lymphoid follicle formation in the bursa of Fabricius of the chick embryo. J Anat 1991; 175: 237-249.
- Sheehan DC, Hrapchak BB. Theory and practice of histotechnology. 2nd Ohio, USA: Battelle Press 1987; 496.
- Lefkowitch JH. Special stains in diagnostic liver pathology. Semin Diagn Pathol 2006; 23(3-4): 190-198.
- Ciriaco E, Píñera PP, Díaz-Esnal B, et al. Age-related changes in the avian primary lymphoid organs (thymus and bursa of Fabricius). Microsc Res Tech 2003; 62(6): 482-487.
- Abbate F, Pfarrer C, Jones CJP, et al. Age-dependent changes in the pigeon bursa of Fabricius vasculature: a comparative study using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. J Anat 2007; 211(3): 387-398.
- Fang J, Peng X. Developmental changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in the normal duck bursa of Fabricius. J Vet Sci 2014; 15(4): 465-474.
- Houssaint E. Cell lineage segregation during bursa of Fabricius ontogeny. J Immunol 1987; 138(11):
- McCormack WT, Tjoelker LW, Barth CF, et al. Selection for B cells with productive IgL gene rearrangements occurs in the bursa of Fabricius during chicken embryonic development. Genes Dev 1989; 3(6):
- Masteller EL, Pharr GT, Funk PE, et al. Avian B cell development. Int Rev Immunol 1997; 15(3-4): 185-206.
- Dóra D, Fejszák N, Goldstein AM, et al. Ontogeny of ramified CD45 cells in chicken embryo and their contribution to bursal secretory dendritic cells. Cell Tissue Res 2017; 368(2): 353-370.
- Paramithiotis E, Ratcliffe MJ. B cell emigration directly from the cortex of lymphoid follicles in the bursa of Fabricius. Eur J Immunol 1994; 24(2): 458-463.
- Korte, J, Fröhlich T, Kohn M, et al. 2D DIGE analysis of the bursa of Fabricius reveals characteristic proteome profiles for different stages of chicken B-cell development. Proteomics 2013; 13(1): 119-133.
- Indu VR, Chunghat JJ, Harshan KR, et al. Morphology and histochemistry of the bursa of Fabricius in White Pekin ducks. Indian J Anim Sci 2005; 75(6): 637-639.
- Karadag Sari E, Altunay H, Kurtdede N, et al. The structure of bursa of Fabricius in the long-legged buzzard (Buteo rufinus): Histological and histochemical study. Acta Veterinaria 2015; 65(4): 510-517.
- Konomi H, Sano J, Nagai Y. Immunohistochemical localization of type I, III and IV (basement membrane) collagens in the liver. Acta Pathol Jpn 1981; 31(6): 973-978.
- Liakka A, Apaja-Sarkkinen M, Karttunen T, et al. Distribution of laminin and types IV and III collagen in fetal, infant and adult human spleens. Cell Tissue Res 1991; 263(2): 245-252
- Lupetti M, Dolfi A, Giannessi F, et al. Reappraisal of histogenesis in the bursal lymphoid follicle of the chicken. Am J Anat 1990; 187(3): 287-302.
- Schaffner T, Mueller J, Hess MW, et al. The bursa of Fabricius: a central organ providing for contact between the lymphoid system and intestinal content. Cell Immunol 1974; 13(2): 304-312.
- Oláh I, Nagy N, Vervelde L. Structure of the avian lymphoid system. In: Schat KA, Kaspers B, Kaiser P (Eds). Avian immunology. 2nd Massachusetts, USA: Academic Press 2012; 11-44
- Karadag Sari E, Kurtdede N. Light and electron microscopic studies of the bursa of Fabricius in turkeys. Kafkas Univ Fak 2007; 13(2): 177-184.
- Franchini A, Ottaviani E. Immunoreactive POMC-derived peptides and cytokines in the chicken thymus and bursa of Fabricius microenvironments: age-related changes. J Neuroendocrinol 1999; 11(9): 685-692.
- Otsubo Y, Chen N, Kajiwara E, et al. Role of bursin in the development of B lymphocytes in chicken embryonic Bursa of Fabricius. Dev Comp Immunol 2001; 25(5-6): 485-493.
- Rodríguez-Méndez AJ, Luna-Acosta JL, Carranza M, et al. Growth hormone expression in stromal and non-stromal cells in the bursa of Fabricius during bursal development and involution: Causal relationships? Gen Comp Endocrinol 2010; 167(2): 297-307.
- Bickford AA, Kuney DR, Zander DV, et al. Histologic characterization of the involuting bursa of Fabricius in single-comb white Leghorn chickens. Avian Dis 1985; 29(3): 778-797.
- Olah I, Glick B. Follicle-associated epithelium and medullary epithelial tissue of the bursa of Fabricius are two different compartments. Anat Rec 1992; 233(4): 577-587.
- Lassila O. Emigration of B cells from chicken bursa of Fabricius. Eur J Immunol 1989; 19(5): 955-958.
- Motyka B, Reynolds JD. Apoptosis is associated with the extensive B cell death in the sheep ileal Peyer’s patch and the chicken bursa of Fabricius: a possible role in B cell selection. Eur J Immunol 1991; 21(8): 1951-1958.