Document Type : Short Communication
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
DVM Student, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging single-stranded RNA virus being classified under Simbu serogroup of Bunyaviridae family. This study aimed to detect antibodies against SBV in cattle for the first time in three eastern provinces of Iran. Blood samples were randomly collected from jugular veins of 270 cattle, from 19 farms in Razavi Khorasan, South Khorasan and Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. Separated sera were analyzed to find SBV antibody using ID vet® SBV indirect multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. From a total of 273 serum samples analyzed for SBV presence, 12.45% (n = 34) were positive for SBV antibody. Risk factors including breed, age and geographic area showed a statistically significant relationship with the virus prevalence. In conclusion, the seroprevalence of SBV is not high; but it is considerable in the studied parts of Iran. This is the first study regarding SBV seroprevalence in cattle population of eastern Iran and further studies about the virus epidemiology are recommended.
- Rasekh M, Sarani A, Hashemi SH. Detection of Schmallenberg virus antibody in equine population of Northern and Northeast of Iran. Vet world 2018; 11(1): 30-33.
- Zhai SL, Lv DH, Wen XH, et al. Preliminary serological evidence for Schmallenberg virus infection in China. Trop Anim Health Prod 2018; 50(2): 449-453.
- Blomström AL, Stenberg H, Scharin I, et al. Serological screening suggests presence of Schmallenberg virus in cattle, sheep and goat in the Zambezia Province, Moza-mbique. Transbound Emerg Dis 2014; 61(4): 289-292.
- Mathew C, Klevar S, Elbers AR, et al. Detection of serum neutralizing antibodies to Simbu sero-group viruses in cattle in Tanzania. BMC Vet Res 2015; 11:208. doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0526-2.
- Laloy E, Riou M, Barc C, et al. Schmallenberg virus: experimental infection in goats and bucks. BMC Vet Res 2015; 11:221. doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0516-4.
- Linden A, Desmecht D, Volpe R, et al. Epizootic spread of Schmallenberg virus among wild cervids, Belgium, Fall 2011. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18(12):2006-2008.
- Bustin SA, Benes V, Nolan T, et al. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR- -a perspective. J Mol Endocrinol 2005; 34(3): 597-601.
- Azkur AK, Albayrak H, Risvanli A, et al. Antibodies to Schmallenberg virus in domestic livestock in Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod 2013; 45(8): 1825-1828.
- Elbers ARW, Loeffen WLA, Quak S, et al. Sero-prevalence of Schmallenberg virus antibodies among dairy cattle, the Netherlands, winter 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18(7): 1065-1071.
- Yilmaz H, Hoffmann B, Turan N, et al. Detection and partial sequencing of Schmallenberg virus in cattle and sheep in Turkey. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis 2014; 14(3):223-225.
- Gache K, Dominguez M, Pelletier C, et al. Schmallenberg virus: a seroprevalence survey in cattle and sheep, France, winter 2011–2012. Vet Rec 2013; 173(6): 141. doi: 10.1136/vr.101377.
- Sibhat B, Ayelet G, Gebremedhin EZ, et al. Sero-prevalence of Schmallenberg virus in dairy cattle in Ethiopia. Acta Trop 2018; 178: 61-67.
- Kęsik-Maliszewska J, Krzysiak MK, Grochowska M, et al. Epidemiology of Schmallenberg virus in European bison (Bison bonasus) in Poland. J Wildl Dis. 2018; 54(2): 272-282.
- Hechinger S, Wernike K, Beer M. Evaluating the protective efficacy of a trivalent vaccine containing Akabane virus, Aino virus and Chuzan virus against Schmallenberg virus infection. Vet Res 2013; 44(1):114. doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-44-114.
- Mohajer F, Sheikh Y, Staji H, et al. Investigating the seruprevalence of antibodies against Akaban and blue tongue viruses using competitive ELISA in dairy cattle of industrial livestock farms around Semnan suburb, Iran. Iran Vet J 2019; 15(3): 78-84.
- Ahi MR, Pourmahdi Borujeni M, Haji Hajikolaei MR, et al. A Serological Survey on antibodies against Akabane virus in sheep in southwest of Iran. Iran J Virol 2015; 9(2): 20-25.
- Konstantinou GN. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Methods Mol Biol 2017; 1592: 79-94.
- Zeynalova S, Vatani M, Asarova A, et al. Schmallenberg virus in Azerbaijan 2012–2018. Arch Virol 2019; 164(7): 1877-1881.
- Rasmussen LD, Kristensen B, Kirkeby C, et al. Culicoids as vectors of Schmallenberg virus. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18(7): 1204-1206.
- Takeshima SN, Aida Y. Structure, function and disease susceptibility of the bovine major histocompatibility complex. Anim Sci J 2006; 77(2): 138-150.
- Matsuu A, Kobayashi T, Patchimasiri T, et al. Pathogenicity of genetically similar, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains in chicken and the differences in sensitivity among different chicken breeds. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153649. doi: 10. 1371/journal.pone.0153649.