Document Type : Original Article


1 Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

2 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

3 National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan


The emergence and spread of multidrug resistance among pathogens of the agro-food sector is increasing at an alarming rate, which has directed attention to the search for alternative to antibiotic therapy. The present work studied the physiological and population dynamics of lytic bacteriophages against avian-adapted Salmonella. Out of 28 positive samples, four bacteriophage isolates (SalØ-ABF37, SalØ-RCMPF12, SalØ-MCOH26, SalØ-DNLS42) were selected based on their ability to clearly lyse bacterial test strains. The isolates propagated were active against closely related D1 serotypes, i.e., S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, with no heterologous activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 23235. Each of the monophage suspension and cocktail efficiently suppressed the bacterial count from exponential increase in comparison to the untreated bacterial control. The bacterial turbidity was recorded as 0.244 at λ600 during 400 min of co-incubation, in contrast to bacterial control showing λ600 = 0.669. The latent period was recorded to be 25, 35, 25 and 30 for SalØ-ABF37, SalØ-RCMPF12, SalØ-MCOH26 and SalØ-DNLS42, with 73.00, 97.00, 132 and 75.00 PFU cell-1, respectively. The highest lytic activity was seen at 37.00 ˚C - 42.00 ˚C, with phage particle count being fairly stable at pH 3.00 - 9.00. Each of the isolates possessed dsDNA by being resistant to RNase A. The current study concludes that lytic phages are promising alternative to combat multidrug resistant superbugs. The physiological characterization and bacterial growth inhibition are important parameters in standardization of phage therapy.


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