Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Bacterial Poultry Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Animal Virology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kharazmi University, Karaj, Iran


Members of gram-negative bacteria family Pasteurellaceae, include a large number of important economically human and veterinary pathogens. Organisms belonging to the family can colonize in mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, alimentary, genital tracts and cause diseases in various mammals, birds, and reptiles. Hemorrhagic septicemia is an acute disease of cattle and buffaloes in tropical countries caused by Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2. In the present study, the possible bactericidal activity of immune calf sera in the presence and absence of complement system was investigated. The results showed that P. multocida B:2 is highly resistant to positive serum, containing high levels of IgG and IgM obtained from calves after vaccination, and complement activity in normal fresh calf serum. This organism also grew rapidly in the normal fresh calf serum and the mixture of positive serum as well as normal fresh calf serum. As a control test an E. coli strain was subjected to the same experiment and found completely sensitive to the bactericidal activity of complement in calf and guinea pig fresh sera. Results were indicative of the presence of inhibitory mechanism(s) in P. multocida B:2 against bactericidal activity of immune calf serum and complement system.


Main Subjects


    1. Kuhnert P, Korczak B, Falsen E, et al. Nicoletella semolina gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of Pasteurellaceae isolated from horses with airway disease. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42: 5542-5548.
    2. Michael F, Harper M, Parnas H, et al. Structural and genetic basis for the serological differentiation of Pasteurella multocida Heddleston serotypes 2 and 5. J Bacteriol 2009; 191 (22): 6950-6959.
    3. Capitini C, Herrero IA, Patel R, et al. Wound infection with Neisseria weaveri and a novel subspecies of Pasteurella multocida in a child who sustained a tiger bite. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34 (12): E74-76.
    4. Jacques M, Mikael LG. Virulence factors of Pasteurellaceae, formidable animal pathogens. ASM News 2002; 68: 174-179.
    5. Kubatzky K, Kloos B, Hildebrand D. Signalling cascades of Pasteurella multocida toxin in immune evasion. Toxins 2013; 5: 1664-1681.
    6. Taylor PW. Bactericidal and bacteriolytic activity of serum against gram-negative bacteria. Microbiol Rev 1983; 47: 46-83.
    7. Hansen LM, Hirsh DC. Serum resistance is correlated with encapsulation of avian strains of Pasteurella multocida. Vet Microbiol 1989; 21: 177-184.
    8. Lee MD, Wooley RE, Glisson JR, et al. Comparison of Pasteurella multocida serotype 3,4 isolates from turkeys with fowl cholera. Avian Dis 1988; 32: 501-508.
    9. Morishita T, Snipes P, Carpenter TE. Serum resistance as an indicator of virulence of Pasteurella multocida for turkeys. Avian Dis 1990; 34: 888-892.
    10. Muhairwa AP, Christensen JP, Bisgaard M. Serum resistance of Pasteurella multocida in avian and porcine sera, and comparative virulence investigations of selected serum-sensitive and resistant strains in chickens. Avian Pathol 2002; 31: 183-191.
    11. Diallo S, Frost AJ. Survival of avian strains of Pasteurella multocida in chicken serum. Vet Microbiol 2000; 72: 153-161.
    12. Kubatzky KF. Pasteurella multocida and immune cells. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2012; 361: 53-72.
    13. Harper M, Boyce JD, Adler B. The key surface components of Pasteurella multocida: capsule and lipopolysaccharide. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2012; 361: 39-52.
    14. Adler B, Chancellor R, Homchampa P, et al. Immunity and vaccine development in Pasteurella multocida infections. J Biotechnol 1996; 44: 139-144.
    15. Ramdani B, Adler, B. Opsonic monoclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens of Pasteurella multocida and the role of LPS in immunity. Vet Microbiol 1991; 26: 335-347.
    16. Boyce JD, Adler B. The capsule is a virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1404 (B:2). Infect Immun 2000; 68: 3463-3468.
    17. Male D, Brostoff J, Roth BR, Roitt IM. Immunology: Complement. 8th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Saunders-Elsevier 2013; 71-78.
    18. Kemper C, Atkinson JP. T-cell regulation: With complements from innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 2007; 7: 9-18.
    19. Kaufmann, SHE, Sher A, Ahmed R. Immunology of infectious diseases. 1st ed. Washington, USA: American society for microbiology 2002; 247-265.
    20. Tizard I. Veterinary immunology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Saunders-Elsevier 2013; 61-73.
    21. Abbas Kl, Lichtman HA, Pillai S. Cellular and molecular immunology. Innate immunity. 7th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Saunders-Elsevier 2012; 55-88.
    22. Sahagun-Ruiz A, Granados Martinez AP, Breda LCD, et al. Pasteurella pneumotropica evades the human complement system by acquisition of the complement regulators factor H and C4BP. PLoS ONE 2014; 9(10): e111194.
    23. Finlay BB, McFadden G. Anti-immunology: Evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens. Cell 2006; 124: 767-782.
    24. Ryu HI, Kim CJ. Immunologic reactivity of a lipo-polysaccharide-protein complex of type A Pasteurella multocida in mice. J Vet Sci 2000;1(2):87-95.
    25. De Alwis MC, Wijewardana TG, Gomis AI, et al. Persistence of the carrier status in hemorrhagic septicemia (Pasteurella multocida serotype 6:B infection) in buffaloes. Trop Anim Health Prod 1990; 22: 185-194.
    26. Martineau-Doize B, Caya I, Gagne S, et al. Effects of Pasteurella multocida toxin on the osteoclast population of the rat. J Comp Pathol 1993; 108: 81-91.
    27. Nougayrede JP, Taieb F, de Rycke J, et al. Cyclomodulins: Bacterial effectors that modulate the eukaryotic cell cycle. Trends Microbiol. 2005; 13: 103-110.
    28. Lax AJ. Opinion: Bacterial toxins and cancer—A case to answer? Nat Rev Microbiol 2005; 3:343-349.
    29. Lax A. The Pasteurella multocida toxin: A new paradigm for the link between bacterial infection and cancer. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2012; 361: 131-144.
    30. Hoskins IC, Thomas LH, Lax AJ. Nasal infection with Pasteurella multocida causes proliferation of bladder epithelium in gnotobiotic pigs. Vet Rec 1997; 140: 22.
    31. Rozengurt E, Higgins T, Chanter N, et al. Pasteurella multocida toxin: Potent mitogen for cultured fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 123-127.