Document Type : Original Article
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) is a perennial plant traditionally used as an herbal medicine in many countries. In the present study, anti-atherosclerotic property of ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was investigated in the experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. In this study, 36 male Wistar rats were selected and allocated into six groups (n = 6). The control group received a normal diet, sham group received a high cholesterol diet (HCD; 1.50% cholesterol and 24.00% fat) and other groups received a HCD and ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at low (100 mg kg-1), moderate (200 mg kg-1) and maximum (400 mg kg-1) doses via gavages. The last group received atorvastatin (10 mg kg-1) through gavage with a HCD. The study period for all groups was six months. At the end of this period, parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were assessed in the blood samples. Additionally, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations on coronary and aorta arteries sections were performed. The results showed an increase in vessels wall thickness and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the HCD group, while these pathological changes were not seen in C. dactylon-treated groups. Treatment of HCD animals with C. dactylon positively changed lipid profile by lowering of TC, TG and LDL-C. The results indicate that C. dactylon prevents from early atherosclerotic changes in the vessels wall.
- Ye P, Cheah IK, Halliwell B. High fat diets and pathology in the guinea pig. Atherosclerosis or liver damage? Biochim Biophys Acta 2013; 1832(2): 355-364.
- Jaipersad AS, Lip GY, Silverman S, et al. The role of monocytes in angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 63(1): 1-11.
- Zhang L, Ovchinnikova O, Jonsson A, et al. The tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid lowers plasma lipids and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolaemic mice. Eur Heart J 2012; 33(16): 2025-2034.
- Matsumoto S, Gotoh N, Hishinuma S, et al. The role of hypertriglyceridemia in the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Nutrients 2014; 6(3): 1236-1250.
- Gimbrone MA, Jr., Garcia-Cardena G. Endothelial cell dysfunction and the pathobiology of atherosclerosis. Circ Res 2016; 118(4): 620-636.
- Zhang J, Liang R, Wang L, et al. Effects of an aqueous extract of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br. fruit on experimental atherosclerosis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2013; 148(2): 563-569.
- Williams PT, Zhao XQ, Marcovina SM, et al. Levels of cholesterol in small LDL particles predict atherosclerosis progression and incident CHD in the HDL-atherosclerosis treatment study (HATS). PloS One 2013; 8(2): 1-9.
- Bentzon JF, Otsuka F, Virmani R, et al. Mechanisms of plaque formation and rupture. Circ Res 2014; 114(12): 1852-1866.
- Fenyo IM, Gafencu AV. The involvement of the monocytes/macrophages in chronic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. Immunobiology 2013; 218(11): 1376-1384.
- Kinoshita H, Matsumura T, Ishii N, et al. Apocynin suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inactivation of macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013; 431(2): 124-130.
- Aikawa M, Rabkin E, Sugiyama S, et al. An HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, cerivastatin, suppresses growth of macrophages expressing matrix metalloproteinases and tissue factor in vivo and in vitro. Circulation 2001; 103(2): 276-283.
- Stancu C, Sima A. Statins: Mechanism of action and effects. J Cell Mol Med 2001; 5(4): 378-387.
- Beltowski J, Wojcicka G, Jamroz-Wiśniewska A. Adverse effects of statins - mechanisms and consequences. Curr Drug Saf2009; 4(3): 209-228.
- Devi KMS, Annapoorani S, Ashokkumar K. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activities for ethyl acetate fraction of Cynodon dactylon in Balb/c mice. J Agricl Sci 2011; 3(3): 182-185.
- Khlifi D, Hayouni EA, Valentin A, et al. LC–MS analysis, anticancer, antioxidant and antimalarial activities of Cynodon dactylon L. extracts. Ind Crops Prod 2013; 45: 240-247.
- Rai PK, Jaiswal D, Rai DK, et al. Antioxidant potential of oral feeding of Cynodon dactylon extract on diabetes-induced oxidative stress. J Food Biochem 2010; 34(1): 78-92.
- Ashokkumar K, Selvaraj K, Muthukrishnan SD. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.: An updated review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Med Plants Res 2013; 7(48): 3477-3483.
- Johnson AW, Snook ME, Wiseman BR. Green leaf chemistry of various turfgrasses technical contribution No. 4646 of the South Carolina Agric. Exp. Stn., Clemson Univ. Crop Sci 42:2004-2010.
- Bhangale J, Acharya S. Antiarthritic activity of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Indian J Exp Biol 2014; 52(3):215-222.
- Kaup SR, Arunkumar N, Bernhardt LK, et al. Anti-hyperlipedemic activity of Cynodon dactylon extract in high-cholesterol diet fed Wistar rats. Genomic Med Biomarkers Health Sci 2011; 3(3-4): 98-102.
- Pang J, Xu Q, Xu X, et al. Hexarelin suppresses high lipid diet and vitamin D3-induced atherosclerosis in the rat. Peptides 2010; 31(4): 630-638.
- Mallick N, Khan RA. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2016; 8(2): 112-118.
- Omole JO, Ighodaro OM. Comparative studies of the effects of egg yolk, oats, apple, and wheat bran on serum lipid profile of Wistar rats. ISRN Nutr 2013; http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/730479.
- Wang P, Xu T-Y, Guan Y-F, et al. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis is an early trigger for hypothyroid atherosclerosis. Cardiovas Res 2014; 102(3): 448-459.
- Biondi B, Klein I. Hypothyroidism as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Endocrine 2004; 24(1):1-13.
- Singh V, Tiwari RL, Dikshit M, et al. Models to study atherosclerosis: A mechanistic insight. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2009; 7(1): 75-109.
- Karthik D, Ravikumar S. A study on the protective effect of Cynodon dactylon leaves extract in diabetic rats. Biomed Environ Sci 2011;24(2):190-199.
- Stary HC, Chandler AB, Dinsmore RE, et al. A definition of advanced types of atherosclerotic lesions and a histological classification of atherosclerosis. Circulation 1995; 92(5): 1355-1374.
- Stary HC. Natural history and histological classification of atherosclerotic lesions: An update. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20(5): 1177-1178.
- Park K, Son H, Kim SW, et al. Initial validation of a novel rat model of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction with generalized atherosclerosis. Int J Impot Res 2005; 17(5): 424-430.
- Lan TH, Huang XQ, Tan HM. Vascular fibrosis in athero-sclerosis. Cardiovasc Pathol 2013; 22(5): 401-407.
- Gomez D, Owens GK. Smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching in atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc Res 2012; 95(2): 156-164.
- Feil S, Fehrenbacher B, Lukowski R, et al. Transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells to macrophage-Like cells during atherogenesis. Circ Res 2014; 115(7): 662-667.
- Song CY, Kim BC, Hong HK, et al. Oxidized LDL activates PAI-1 transcription through autocrine activation of TGF-beta signaling in mesangial cells. Kidney Int 2005; 67(5): 1743-1752.
- Chatauret N, Favreau F, Giraud S, et al. Diet-induced increase in plasma oxidized LDL promotes early fibrosis in a renal porcine auto-transplantation model. J Transl Med 2014; 12 76. doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-12-76.
- Deng S, Jin T, Zhang L, et al. Mechanism of tacrolimus-induced chronic renal fibrosis following trans-plantation is regulated by ox-LDL and its receptor, LOX-1. Mol Med Rep 2016; 14(5): 4124-4134.
- Jiang ZR, Sim J. Effect of feeding egg yolk powder on the plasma and tissue cholesterol levels in rats. Poult Sc 1991; 70(2): 401-403.
- Spence JD, Jenkins DJ, Davignon J. Egg yolk consumption and carotid plaque. Atherosclerosis 2012; 224(2): 469-473.
- Franczyk-Zarow M, Kostogrys RB, Szymczyk B, et al. Functional effects of eggs, naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid, on the blood lipid profile, development of atherosclerosis and composition of atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein E and low-density lipoprotein receptor double-knockout mice (apoE/LDLR-/-). Br J Nutr 2008; 99(1): 49-58.
- Robbins JM, Petrone AB, Ellison RC, et al. Association of egg consumption and calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries: The NHLBI family heart study. E-Spen Eur E J Clin Nutr Metab 2014; 9(3): e131-e135.
- Djoussé L, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, et al. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Diabetes Care 2009; 32(2): 295-300.
- Li Y, Zhou C, Zhou X, et al. Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: A meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis 2013; 229(2): 524-530.
- Virtanen JK, Mursu J, Tuomainen TP, et al. Egg consumption and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in men: The Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study. Am J Clin Nutr 2015; 101(5): 1088-1096.
- Adamopoulos PN, Papamichael CM, Zampelas A, et al. Cholesterol and unsaturated fat diets influence lipid and glucose concentrations in rats. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 1996; 113(3): 659-663.
- Hansson GK. Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(16): 1685-1695.
- Anila L, Vijayalakshmi NR. Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats. Food Chem 2003; 83(4): 569-574.
- Shysh A, Pashevin DO, Dosenko V, et al. Correction of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system disorders by bioflavonoids during modeling of cholesterol atherosclerosis in rabbits. Fiziol Zh 2011; 57(2):19-26.
- Lisak M, Demarin V, Trkanjec Z, et al. Hyper-triglyceridemia as a possible independent risk factor for stroke. Acta Clin Croat 2013; 52(4): 458-463.
- Wang YM, Zhang B, Xue Y, et al. The mechanism of dietary cholesterol effects on lipids metabolism in rats. Lipids Health Dis 2010; 9: 4.