Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Animal Science, College of Animal Science and Food Technology, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, College of Animal Science and Food Technology, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran


This experiment was conducted to study the effects of various amounts of treated sunflower meal (SFM) with extracted tannins from pistachio hulls on in vitro gas production and ruminal fermentation in ruminants. The SFM was treated with pistachio extract concentrate (PEC), which contained 111.40 g kg-1 total phenol and 71.30 g kg-1 total tannin per dry matter of extract, at six experimental treatment levels of 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 g PEC per 100 g SFM on a dry matter basis. In vitro gas production, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and fermentative parameters of samples were measured. The PEC had no effect on fermentation rate, but asymptotic gas production was linearly decreased with increasing dose of extract. All fermentation parameters (i.e., apparent degraded substrate, short chain fatty acids, gas yield at 24 hr, partitioning factor at 96 hr, IVOMD, ME and microbial protein production (MP) linearly decreased with increasing PEC treatment. Inclusion of PEC linearly decreased ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration (NH3-N), total protozoa population and pH in the all incubation times. In conclusion, the addition of PEC positively modified some rumen parameters such as NH3-N concentration and protozoa population.


Main Subjects

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