Document Type : Original Article


1 Graduate Student, College of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran

2 Department of Animal Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran

3 Department of Poultry Health and Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels chromium picolinate (CrPic) and chromium nanoparticles (nano-Cr) on the performance and immune function of broilers under heat stress condition. A total of 320 Ross 308 broiler chicks (from 21 to 42 days) were assigned randomly into eight treatment groups (four replicates per treatment, and 10 chicks per replicate) and be reared at either thermoneutral (21 ˚C) or heat stress (36 C). The treatments were control (T1) group without supplementation and heat stress, T2 as a heat stress group without supplementation, T3, T4 and T5 groups which were supplemented with 500, 1000 and 1500 ppb CrPic in diet with heat stress, respectively and T6, T7 and T8 groups which were supplemented with 500, 1000 and 1500 ppb nano-chromium in diet under heat stress, respectively. Supplementation of chromium and nano-chromium improved performance including weight gain and feed conversion ratio of heat-stressed chickens. Antibody titers against avian influenza (AI) and infectious bronchitis (IB) at 21 to 42 days of age in broilers fed supplemental chromium and nano-chromium were higher than broiler chickens fed control diet (p < 0.05). Nano-chromium supplementation at level of 1000 ppb and CrPic at level of 1500 ppb improved the antibody titers against AI and IB of broilers under heat stress conditions. It can be concluded from these findings that dietary supplementation of CrPic and nano-Cr can improve performance and antibody titers against AI and IB under heat stress conditions in broilers.


Main Subjects


    1. Rao SV, Raju MV, Panda AK, et al. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic chromium on performance, carcass traits, oxidative parameters, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens. Biol Trace Elem Res 2012; 147(3): 135-141.
    2. Zha L, Xu ZR, Wang MQ, et al. Effects of chromium nanoparticle dosage on growth, body composition, serum hormones and tissue chromium in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2007; 8(5): 323-330.
    3. Vincent JB. The biochemistry of chromium. J Nutr 2000; 130(4): 715-718.
    4. Ghazi SH, Habibian M, Moeini MM, et al. Effects of different levels of organic and inorganic chromium on growth performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress. Biol Trace Elem Res 2012; 146(3): 309-317.
    5. Donker RA, Nieuwland MG, van der Zijpp AJ. Heat stress influences on antibody production in chicken lines selected for high and low immune responsiveness. Poult Sci 1990; 69(4): 599-607.
    6. Bozkurt M, Kucukvilmaz K, Catli AU, et al. Performance, egg quality, and immune response of laying hens fed diets supplemented with manna-oligosaccharide or an essential oil mixture under moderate and hot environmental conditions. Poult Sci 2012; 91(6): 1379-1386.
    7. Anderson RA. Chromium in trace elements in human and animal nutrition. In: Mertz W (Ed). The role of chromium in animal nutrition. 5th ed. New York, USA: Academic Press 1988; 225-244.
    8. Amata IA. Chromium in livestock nutrition: A review. Glo Adv Res J Agric Sci 2013; 2(12): 289-306.
    9. Kegley EB, Spears JW. Immune response, glucose metabolism, and performance of stressed feeder calves fed inorganic or organic chromium. J Anim Sci 1995; 73(9): 2721-2726.
    10. Borgs P, Mallard BA. Immune-endocrine interactions in agricultural species: Chromium and its effect on health and performance. Domest Anim Endocrinol 1998; 15(5): 431-438.
    11. Aengwanich W. Pathological changes and the effects of ascorbic acid on lesion scores of bursa of fabricius in broilers under chronic heat stress. Res J Vet Sci 2010; 1(1): 62-66.
    12. Luo X, Guo YL, Liu B, et al. Effect of dietary chromium on growth, serum biochemical traits and immune responses of broiler chicks during 0-3 weeks of age. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica 1999; 30: 481-489.
    13. Toghyani M, Zarkesh S, Shivazad M, et al. Immune responses of broiler chicks fed chromium picolinate in heat stress condition. J Poult Sci 2007; 44(3): 330-334.
    14. Bartlett JR, Smith MO. Effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress. Poult Sci 2003; 82(10): 1580-1588.
    15. Ebrahimzadeh SK, Farhoomand P, Noori N. Immune response of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with different level of chromium methionine under heat stress conditions. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2012; 25(2): 256-260.
    16. Zulkifli I, Che Norma MT, Israf DA, et al. The effect of early age feed restriction on subsequent response to high environmental temperatures in female broiler chickens. Poult Sci 2000; 79(10): 1401-1407.
    17. Lee DN, Fu-Yu W, Yeong-Hsiang C, et al. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate supplementation on growth performance and immune responses of broilers. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2003; 16(2):
    18. NRC. Nutrient requirements of poultry. Washington, USA: National Academy of Science Press 1994; 61-68.
    19. OIE. Avian Influenza, Chapter 2.3.4. OIE Terrestrial Manual. Paris, France: OIE 2015; 1-23.
    20. Akbari M, Torki M. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions. Int J Biometeorol 2014; 58(6): 1383-1391.
    21. Sahin N, Sahin K, Onderci M, et al. Chromium picolinate, rather than biotin, alleviates performance and metabolic parameters in heat-stressed quail. Br Poult Sci 2005; 46(4): 457-463.
    22. Sirirat N, Lu J, Tsung-Yu Hung A, et al. Effects different levels of nanoparticles chromium picolinate supplementation on growth performance, mineral retention, and immune responses in broiler chickens. J Agric Sci 2012; 4(12): 48-58.
    23. Kim SW, Han IK, Choi YJ, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate on growth performance, carcass composition and serum traits of broilers fed dietary different levels of crude protein. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 1995; 8(5): 463-470.
    24. Jackson AR, Powell S, Johnston S, et al. The Effect of chromium propionate on growth performance and carcass traits in broilers. J Appl Poult Res 2008; 17(4): 476-481.
    25. Anandhi M, Mathivanan R, Viswanathan K, et al. Dietary inclusion of organic chromium on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. Int J Poult Sci 2006; 5(9): 880-884.
    26. Al-Mashhadani EH, DK Ibrahim, LK Al-Bandr. Effect of supplementing different levels of chromium yeast to diet on broiler chickens performance. Int J Poult Sci 2010; 9(4): 376-381.
    27. Ahmad T, Khalid T, Mushtaq T, et al. Effect of potassium chloride supplementation in drinking water on broiler performance under heat stress conditions. Poult Sci 2008; 87(7): 1276-1280.
    28. Onderci M, Sahin N, Sahin K, et al. Antioxidant properties of chromium and zinc: in vivo effects on digestibility, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant vitamins, and some minerals under a low ambient temperature. Biol Trace Elem Res 2003; 92(2): 139-149.
    29. Borel JS, Majerus TC, Polansky MM, et al. Chromium intake and urinary Cr excretion of trauma patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 1984; 6(4): 317-326.
    30. Burton JL, Mallard BA, Mowat DN. Effects of supplemental chromium on immune responses of periparturient and early lactation dairy cows. J Anim Sci 1993; 71(6): 1532-1539.
    31. Kheiri F, Toghyani M. Effect of different levels of chromium chloride on performance and antibody titer against Newcastle and avian influenza virus in broiler chicks: 16th European symposium on poultry nutrition. Strasbourg, France 2007; 331-334.
    32. Jahanian R, Rasouli E. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks. J Anim Sci 2015; 93(7): 3355-3363.
    33. Bhagat J, Ahmed KA, Tyagi P, et al. Effects of supple-mental chromium on interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA expression in response to Newcastle disease vaccine in broiler chicken. Res Vet Sci 2008; 85(1): 46-51.
    34. Khajavi M, Rahimi S, Hassan ZM, et al. Effect of feed restriction early in life on humoral and cellular immunity of two commercial broiler strains under heat stress conditions. Br Poult Sci 2003; 44(3): 490-497.