Document Type : Original Article
DVM graduate, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Department of Radiology and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
The objective of this study was to evaluate the pituitary gland dimensions due to age and weight using computed tomography (CT) in dogs and cats. The CT images of pituitary gland were assessed in 11 client-owned dogs (six males and five females; age range, 1 to 9 years) and 15 client-owned cats (eight males and seven females; age range, 1 to 14 years) with no evidence of pituitary diseases. The length, height, width and volume of the pituitary gland were measured in sagittal and transverse planes. Mean pituitary length, width, height and volume (± standard deviation: SD) were respectively 4.96 (± 0.69 mm), 3.62 (± 0.64 mm), 2.62 (± 0.05 mm) and 26.19 (± 7.99 mm3) in cats and were 7.00 (± 2.14 mm), 4.80 (± 1.20 mm), 3.80 (± 0.70 mm) and 77.53 (± 51.64 mm3) in dogs, respectively. Mean pituitary height-to-brain ratio (P:B ratio), (± SD) in cats and dogs was 0.28 (± 0.05) and 0.21 (± 0.03), respectively and mean percent of pituitary volume to brain volume (± SD) in cats and dogs was 0.10 (± 0.05) and 0.10 (± 0.07), respectively. There was no significant correlation between the size of pituitary gland and age, weight and body condition score (BCS) in dogs, however in cats, significant difference was found between height of pituitary gland and weight and BCS, pituitary width and weight and P:B ratio and BCS. These findings could be useful to identify abnormal pituitary gland enlargement in CT images. To be more accurate in the assessments, further studies are required.
- Melmed S. The pituitary. 3rd ed. London, UK: Academic Press 2010; 3-5.
- Reece, W O. Functional anatomy and physiology of domestic animals. 4th ed. Ames, USA: John Wiley & Sons 2009: 374-376.
- Evans HE, De Lahunta A. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 5th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Elsevier Health Sciences 2013: 810-814.
- Sadler TW. Longman’s medical embryology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2011: 196-199.
- Van der Vlugt-Meijer RH, Meij BP, Voorhout G. Intra-observer and interobserver agreement, reproducibility, and accuracy of computed tomographic measurements of pituitary gland dimensions in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67(10): 1750-1755.
- Tyson, R, Graham JP, Bermingham E, et al. Dynamic computed tomography of the normal feline hypophysis cerebri (Glandula pituitaria). Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2005; 46(1): 33-38.
- Vlugt‐Meijer RH, Meij BP, Ingh TS, et al. Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland in dogs with pituitary‐dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 2003; 17(6): 773-780.
- Schwarz T, Saunders J. Veterinary computed tomography. 1st ed. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell 2011; 97-203.
- Meij BP. Hypophysectomy as a treatment for canine and feline Cushing's disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2001; 31(5):1015-1041.
- Hanson JM, Hoofd MM, Voorhout G, et al. Efficacy of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in treatment of dogs with pituitary‐dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 2005; 19(5): 687-694.
- Van der Vlugt-Meijer RH, Meij BP, Voorhout G, et al. Dynamic computed tomographic evaluation of the pituitary gland in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2004; 65(11): 1518-1524.
- Auriemma E, Barthez PY, van der Vlugt-Meijer RH, et al. Computed tomography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism: 11 cases (2001–2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009; 235(4): 409-414.
- Kippenes H, Gavin PR, Kraft SL, et al. Mensuration of the normal pituitary gland from magnetic resonance images in 96 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2001; 42(2): 130-133.
- Argyropoulou M, Perignon F, Brunelle F, et al. Height of normal pituitary gland as a function of age evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in children. Pediatr Radiol 1991; 21(4): 247-249.
- Hayakawa K, Konishi Y, Matsuda T, et al. Development and aging of brain midline structures: Assessment with MR imaging. Radiology 1989; 172(1): 171-177.
- Yuh WT, Fisher DJ, Nguyen HD, et al. Sequential MR enhancement pattern in normal pituitary gland and in pituitary adenoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1994; 15(1): 101-108.
- Wallack ST, Wisner ER, Feldman EC. Mensuration of the pituitary gland from magnetic resonance images in 17 cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2003; 44(3): 278-282.