Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran

2 Student of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran


A balanced anesthesia protocol is called perfect when it has fast induction, excellent recovery, the least effect on the cardiopulmonary system and sufficient analgesia. Many of anesthetic combinations have an analgesic effect without opioids. However, at the end of anesthesia, analgesia decreases or is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to evaluate anesthesia times, electrocardiogram (ECG) and analgesic effect of tramadol when administrated with ketamine, ketamine-diazepam, ketamine-midazolam, and ketamine-xylazine and selected a balanced anesthesia protocol in buzzards. Ten adult common buzzards (Buteo buteo) received seven different anesthetic protocols (with or without tramadol). In each protocol, anesthesia times, electrocardiograph parameters and analgesic effect were recorded. Excluding ketamine-tramadol, all protocols produced deep anesthesia in all buzzards. Among of all protocols, no significant differences regarding the amplitude and duration of waves (P, QRS and T) was found. By adding tramadol to anesthetic protocols, response duration to thermal sense increased up 3 hr after recovery. Tramadol did not make considerable effects on anesthesia times and ECG and made analgesic effect up to 3 hr when used with ketamine-benzodiazpins or ketamine-xylazine. Therefore, tramadol can be used with injectable anesthetics to make suitably balanced anesthesia in buzzards.


Main Subjects


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