Document Type : Short Communication


1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2 DVM Graduate, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


Influenza is a highly contagious zoonotic disease in the world. Avian H9N2 influenza virus is a significant pandemic pathogen widely distributed throughout the world. Pet ownership has been documented as a risk factor for infection transmission to human. Considering major public health concern, the prevalence of antibodies against avian H9N2 influenza virus was evaluated in 170 serum samples of dogs by hemagglutination inhibition assay. This study is the first survey to assess the epidemiology of avian H9N2 influenza virus infection in dogs in Kerman, southeast of Iran. Out of 170 samples, 65 (38.23%) were positive for H9N2. Antibodies were higher in farm dogs that were kept with other animals and also in dogs were fed a raw diet. These findings emphasize the importance of close attention to these populations for control and prevention programs. It is important to reduce infection burden, especially in regions with widespread distribution of H9N2.


Main Subjects


    1. Shao W, Li X, Goraya MU, et al. Evolution of influenza a virus by mutation and re-assortment. Int J Mol Sci 2017; 18(8):1650.
    2. Yin X, Zhao FR, Zhou DH, et al. Serological report of pandemic and seasonal human influenza virus infection in dogs in southern China. Arch Virol 2014; 159(11): 2877-2882.
    3. Hadipour MM. H9N2 avian influenza virus antibody titers in human population in Fars province, Iran. Braz J Poultry Sci 2010; 12(3): 161-164.
    4. Song D, Kim H, Na W, et al. Canine susceptibility to human influenza viruses (A/pdm 09H1N1, A/H3N2 and B). J Gen Virol 2015; 96: 254-258.
    5. Su S, Chen J, Jia K, et al. Evidence for subclinical influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus infection among dogs in Guangdong province, China. J Clin Microbiol 2014; 52(5): 1762-1765.
    6. Wiley CA, Ottoson MC, Garcia MM, et al. The seroprevalence of canine Influenza virus H3N8 in dogs participating in a flyball tournament in Pennsylvania in 2010: A followup study. J Vet Intern Med 2013; 27: 367-370.
    7. Amirsalehy H, Nili H, Mohammadi A. Can dogs carry the global pandemic candidate avian influenza virus H9N2? Aust Vet J 2012; 90(9): 341-345.
    8. Zhang K, Zhang Z, Yu Z, et al. Domestic cats and dogs are susceptible to H9N2 avian influenza virus. Virus Res 2013; 175(1): 52-57.
    9. Abbaszadeh Hasiri M, Nazifi S, Mohsenifard, E. et al. Serologic prevalence of antibodies against avian origin influenza virus in dogs referred to the Veterinary Clinic at Shiraz University. Comp Clin Pathol 2012; 21(6): 1127-1130.
    10. Hai-xia F, Yuan-yuan L, Qian-qian, S, et al. Interspecies transmission of canine influenza virus H5N2 to cats and chickens by close contact with experimentally infected dogs. Vet Microbiol 2014; 170(3-4): 414-417.
    11. Su S, Chen Y, Zhao FR, et al. Avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus circulating in farmed dogs in Guang-dong, China. Infect Genet Evol 2013; 19: 444-449.
    12. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Available at: Feb 01, 2013.
    13. Sun X, Xu X, Liu Q, et al. Evidence of avian-like H9N2 influenza A virus among dogs in Guangxi, China. Infect Genet Evol 2013; 20: 471-475.
    14. Crawford PC, Dubovi EJ, Castleman WL, et al. Transmission of equine influenza virus to dogs. Science 2005; 310(5747): 482-485.
    15. Sun Y, Shen Y, Zhang X, et al. A serological survey of canine H3N2, pandemic H1N1/09 and human seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses in dogs in China. Vet Microbiol 2014; 168(1): 193-196.
    16. Su S, Zhou P, Fu X, et al. Virological and epidemiological evidence of avian influenza virus infections among feral dogs in live poultry markets, China: A threat to human health? Clin Infect Dis 2014; 58 (11): 1644-1646.
    17. Schulz B, Klinkenberg C, Fux R, et al. Prevalence of canine influenza virus A (H3N8) in dogs in Germany. Vet J 2014; 202(1): 184-185.
    18. Thiry E, Zicola A, Addie D, et al. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in cats and other carnivores. Vet Microbiol 2007; 122(1): 25-31.
    19. Songserm T, Amonsin A, Jam-on R, et al. Avian influenza H5N1 in naturally infected domestic cat. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12(4): 681-683.