Document Type : Original Article


Department of Animal Productions, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon


Acetamiprid (ACP) belonging to the neonicotinoid family used against wide array of pests in agriculture and domestic purposes. In this study, we evaluated the attenuating effects of ethanolic extract of Mangifera indica leaves (EEMI) in averting reproductive toxicity caused by ACP in male guinea pigs. Thirty male guinea pigs were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (n = 6). Group 1 (T0) received distilled water orally; group 2 (T0-) was given 80 mg kg-1 of ACP and groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated, respectively, with EEMI at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 plus ACP. After 90 days, the reaction time, sexual organ weights, sperm count, motility and anomalies, spermatozoa with entire plasma membrane, testicular histology, serum testosterone concentration, testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were assessed. Co-administration of EEMI significantly reduced the reaction time, sperm anomalies and testicular MDA, SOD and CAT levels compared to the T0- group. Co-treatment of EEMI significantly alleviated sperm count and motility, percentage of spermatozoa with the normal plasma membrane, serum testosterone concentration, accessory sex gland weights, and testicular GSH concentrations. The ACP treatment induced cell membrane degradation in the testis and this effect was prevented with the addition of EEMI. In conclusion, ACP negatively affected the animal reproductive function and induced oxidative stress. The addition of EEMI alleviated the toxic effects of ACP on the reproductive function of male guinea pigs.


Main Subjects


    1. Singh NS, Sharma R, Parween T, et al. Pesticides contamination and human health risk factor. In: Oves M, Zain Khan M, Ismail IMI (Eds). Modern age environmental problems and their remediation. New York, USA: Springer 2018; 21.
    2. Salama AK, Khaled A, Osman OAO. Pesticides-induced oxidative damage: Possible in vitro protection by antioxidants. In proceedings: 3rd International conference and exhibition on metabolomics & systems biology. Hilton San Antonio Airport, San Antonio, USA. 2014; 155.
    3. Abdollahi M, Ranjbar A, Shadnia S, et al. Pesticides and oxidative stress: A review. Med Sci Monit 2004; 10(6): 141-147.
    4. Turner TT, Lysiak JJ. Oxidative stress: A common factor in testicular dysfunction. J Androl 2008; 29(5): 488-489.
    5. Leong CT, D'Souza UJ, Iqbal M, et al. Lipid peroxidation and decline in antioxidant status as one of the toxicity measures of diazinon in the testis. Redox Rep 2013; 18(4): 155-164.
    6. Shalaby MA, Hammoda AA. Protective effect of Allium sativum juice and oil with vitamin E against testicular toxicity in rats. World J Pharm Pharma Sci 2015; 4(1): 155-170.
    7. Bal R, Turk G, Yılmaz O, et al. Effects of clothianidin exposure on sperm quality, testicular apoptosis and fatty acid composition in developing male rats. Cell Biol Toxicol 2012; 28(3): 187-200.
    8. Zhang JJ, Wang Y, Xiang H, et al. Oxidative stress: Role in acetamiprid-induced impairment of the male mice reproductive system. Agric Sci China 2010; 10: 786-796.
    9. Keshta AT, Hataba AA, Mead HMI, et al. Oxidative stress and biochemical changes induced by thiamethoxam and acetamiprid insecticides in rats. World J Pharma Pharmacol Sci 2016; 5(6): 44-60.
    10. Nantia AE, Moundipa FP, Monsees KT, et al. Medicinal plants as potential male anti infertility agents: A review. Basic Clin Androl 2009; 19(3): 148-158.
    11. Sharif MDM, Banik GR. Status and utilization of medicinal plants in Rangamati of Bangladesh. Res J Agric Biol Sci 2006; 2(6): 268-273.
    12. Kabuki T, Hakajima H, Arai M, et al. Characterization of novel antimicrobial compounds from mango (Mangifera indica L.) kernel seeds. Food Chem 2000; 71(1): 61-66.
    13. Perpetuo JM, Salgado JM. Effect of mango (Mangifera indica L.) ingestion on blood glucose levels of normal and diabetic rats. Plant Foods Human Nutri 2003; 58(3): 1-12.
    14. Ojewole J. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2005; 27(8): 547-554.
    15. Muruganandan K, Srinivasan S, Gupta PK, et al. Effect of mangiferin on hyperglycemia and atherogenicityin streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol2005; 97(3): 497-501.
    16. Massibo M, He Q. Major mango polyphenols and their potential significance to human health. Comprehensive Rev Food Sci Food Safety 2008; 7: 309-319.
    17. Badmus JA, Adedosu TO, Fatoki JO, et al. Lipid peroxidation inhibition and antiradical activities of some leaf fractions of Mangifera indica. Acta Pol Pharm2011; 68(1): 23-29.
    18. Fernández-Ponce MT, Lourdes C, Casimiro Ml, et al. Potential use of mango leaves extracts obtained by high pressure technologies in cosmetic, pharmaceutics and food industries. Chem Engin Transac 2013; 32:
    19. Kanwal Q, Hussain I, Latif SH, et al. Antifungal activity of flavonoids isolated from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves. Nat Prod Res 2010; 24(20): 1907-1914.
    20. Severi JA, Lima ZP, Kushima H, et al. Polyphenols with antiulcerogenic action from aqueous decoction of mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves. Molecules2009; 14(3): 1098-1110.
    21. Singh RS, Singh GJ, G. Jeyabalan, et al. An overview on traditional medicinal plants as aphrodisiac agent. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2012 ; 1(4): 43-56.
    22. Kenfack A, Guiekep NAJ, Ngoula F, et al. Reproductive toxicity of acetamiprid in male Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). J Anim Sci Vet Med 2018; 3(4): 105-111.
    23. Yan J, Xiao-Ying Y, Kong-Long F, et al. Effects of extract from Mangifera indica leaf on monosodium urate crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 2012: 967573.
    24. Harborne JB. Phytochemicals Methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. London, UK : Springer 1973; 49-188.
    25. Baril G, Chemineau P, Cognie Y, et al. Training manual for artificial insemination in sheep and goats [French]. FAO animal production and health study. Rome, Italy: FAO 1993; 231.
    26. Nilsson UA, Olsson LI, Carlin G, et al. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by spin labels. J Biol Chem1989; 264: 11131-11135.
    27. Habbu PV, Shastry RA, Mahadevan KM, et al. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Argyreia speciosa in rats. Afr J Trad Complem Alternat Med 2008; 5(2):158-164.
    28. Misra HP, Fridovich I. The generation of superoxide radical during the autoxidation of hemoglobin. J Biol Chem 1972; 247(21): 6960-6962.
    29. Sinha AK. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem1972; 47(2): 389-394.
    30. Woode E, Alhassan A, Chrissie SA. Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Xylopia aethiopica on reproductive function of male rats. Int J Pharm Biomed Res2011; 2(3): 161-165.
    31. Ahangarpour A, Oroojan AA, Heydari H. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Dorema aucheri on serum levels of testosterone, FSH and sperm count in nicotinamide STZ-induced diabetic rat models. J Adv Med Biomed Res 2013; 21(87): 22-31.
    32. Vemo BN, Kenfack A, Ngoula F, et al. Effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves on oxidative stress and reproductive parameters in male Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) exposed to cypermethrin. Int J Biol Chem Sci 2017; 11(5): 2243-2253.
    33. Tirado Sanchez EE, Marquette ML, Brown DB, et al. The effect of oxidative stress on human sperm morphology. Fertil Steril 2006; 86: S444.
    34. Jedlinska MG, Bomba K, Jakubowski T, et al. Impact of oxidative stress and supplementation with vitamin E and C on testes morphology in rats. J Reprod Dev 2006; 52(2): 203-209.
    35. Hodek P, Trefil P, Stiborova M. Flavonoids-potent and versatile biologically active compounds interacting with cytochromes P450. Chem Biol Interact 2002; 139(1): 1-21.
    36. Benavente-Garcia O, Castillo J, Marin FR, et al. Uses and properties of citrus flavonoids. J Agric Food Chem 1997; 45 (12): 4505-4515.