Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Pathology and Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ‎Urmia University, Urmia, Iran‎

3 Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, ‎Urmia, Iran‎

4 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ‎Tehran, Iran‎


Gamma radiation are used in many medical and technical applications, however, it is one of the most dangerous kinds of radiation and can be harmful to the body. The present study was designed to clarify the protective effects of the selenium supplementation as selenium nanoparticle and selenite selenium in rat liver against Gamma irradiation with different intensities of 2.00 and 8.00 Gy. A total number of 45 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups of five each. The radiation procedure was carried out in the Cobalt 60 equipment in Omid hospital, Urmia. The animals were simultaneously immobilized in a transparent acrylic plate and exposed to different intensities of 2.00 and 8.00 Gy radiations on day 7th and 14th of the experiment. After 72 hr after the last radiation, the animals were euthanized, and blood and liver tissue were collected. Histological analyses revealed the radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats, which included vacuolated cytoplasm, liver necrosis, fibrosis, and vascular lesions followed by a significant increase in alanine transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and Gamma-glutamyl transferase. Selenium nanoparticles bear a more potent antioxidant effect in comparison with selenium selenite and can effectively protect the liver cell against Gamma radiation at a dose of 8.00 Gy.


  1. Hall PA, Mckee HD, Menage R, et al. High levels of p53 in UV-irradiated normal human skin. Oncogene 1993; 88: 203-207.
  2. Steel GG. From targets to genes: a brief history of radiosensitivity. Phys Med Biol 1996; 41(2): 205-222.
  3. Kropáčova K, Slovinská L, Miŝúrová E. Cytogenetic changes in the liver of progeny of irradiated male rats. Radia Res 2002; 43(2): 125-33.
  4. Sree Kumar K, Srinivasan V, Toles R, et al. Nutritional approaches to radioprotection: vitamin E. Mil Med 2002; 167(Suppl): 57-59.
  5. Goel HC, Prasad J, Singh S, et al. Radioprotection by a herbal preparation of Hippophae rhamnoides, RH-3, against whole body lethal irradiation in mice. Phytomedicine 2002; 9(1): 15-25.
  6. Srinivasan M, Sudheer AR, Pillai KR, et al. Modulatory effects of curcumin on γ-radiation-induced cellular damage in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes. EnvironToxicol Pharmacol 2007; 24(2): 98-105.
  7. Jagetia GC. Radioprotection and radiosensitization by curcumin. In: Aggarwal BB, Surh YJ, Shishodia S (Eds). Molecular targets and therapeutic uses of curcumin in health and disease. New York, USA: Springer 2007; 301-320.
  8. Vijayalaxmi RR, Herman TS, Meltz ML. Melatonin and radioprotection from genetic damage:in vivo/in vitro studies with human volunteers. Mutat Res 1996; 371(3-4): 221-228.
  9. Koc M, Taysi S, Buyukokuroglu ME, et al. Melatonin protects rat liver against irradiation-induced oxidative injury. J Radiat Res 2003; 44(3):211-215.
  10. Wasserman T. Radioprotective effects of amifostine. Semin Oncol 1999; 26(2 Suppl 7):89-94.
  11. Dunst J, Semlin S, Pigorsch S, et al. Intermittent use of amifostine during postoperative radiochemotherapy and acute toxicity in rectal cancer patients. Strahlenther Onkol 2000; 176(9): 416-421.
  12. Maisin JR. Bacq and Alexander award lecture -- chemical radioprotection: past, present and future prospects. Int Radiat Biol. 1998; 73(4): 443-450.
  13. Colombo M, Carregal-Romero S, Casula MF, et al. Biological applications of magnetic nanoparticles. Chem Soc Rev. 2012; 41(11): 4306-4334.
  14. Kim JH, Hong YC, Uhm HS. Synthesis of oxide nano-particles via microwave plasma decomposition of initial materials. Surf Coat Technol 2007; 201: 5114-5120.
  15. Salata OV. Applications of nanoparticles in biology and medicine. J Nanobiotechnol 2004; 2: 3. doi: 10.1186/ 1477-3155-2-3.
  16. Brown KM, Arthur JR. Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review. Public Health Nutr 2001; 4(2B): 593-599.
  17. Nève J, Vertongen F, Capel P. Selenium supplementation in healthy Belgian adults: response in platelet glutathione peroxidase activity and other blood indices. Am Clin Nutr 1988; 48(1): 139-143.
  18. Bhattacharjee A, Basu A, Ghosh P, et al. Protective effect of selenium nanoparticle against cyclophosphamide induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. J Biomate Appl 2014; 29(2): 303-317.
  19. Kumar GS, Kulkarni A, Khurana A, et al. Selenium nanoparticles involve HSP-70 and SIRT1 in preventing the progression of type 1 diabetic nephropathy. Chem Biol Interac 2014; 223: 125-133.
  20. Gao X, Sun Y. Selenium nanoparticles with improved biological effects. United States patent application US 8/445, 026B442.
  21. Scherrer P. Determination of the size and the internal structure of colloidal particles by means of X-rays [German]. Nachr Ges Wiss Goettingen Math Physic Kl 1918 (2);98-100.
  22. Jacobson B, Lockitch G. Direct determination of selenium in serum by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction and a reduced palladium modifier: age-specific reference ranges. Clin Chem 1988, 344: 709-714.
  23. Rowatt K, Burns RE, Frasca Jr S, et al. A combination of Prussian blue and hematoxelene-eosin staining technique for identification of iron and other histological features. J Histotechnol 2018; 41(1): 29-34.
  24. Ramos CAF, Sá RCDS, Alves MF, et al. Histopathological and biochemical assessment of d-limonene-induced liver injury in rats. Toxicol Rep 2015; 2: 482-488.
  25. Chieco P, Derenzini M. The Feulgen reaction 75 years on. Histochem Biol 1999; 111(5): 345-358.
  26. Singh A, Singh H. Time-scale and nature of radiation-biological damage: approaches to radiation protection and post-irradiation therapy. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1982; 39(2):69-107.
  27. Ahmad MS, Yasser MM, Sholkamy EN, et al. Anticancer activity of biostabilized selenium nanorods synthesized by Streptomyces bikiniensis strain Ess_amA-1. Int J Nanomedicine 2015; 10:3389-3401.
  28. Gates B, Yin Y, Xia Y. A solution-phase approach to the synthesis of uniform nanowires of crystalline selenium with lateral dimensions in the range of 10−30 nm. J Am Chem Soc 2000; 122(50): 12582-12583.
  29. Daniels LA. Selenium metabolism and bioavailability. Bio Ttrace Elem Res 1996;54(3):185-199.
  30. Geraci JP, Mariano MS. Radiation hepatology of the rat: parenchymal and nonparenchymal cell injury. Radiat Res 1993; 36(2): 205-213.
  31. Schmidt E, Schmidt FW, Möhr J, et al. Liver morphology and enzyme release: further studies in the isolated perfused rat liver. In: Keppler D (Ed). Pathogenesis and mechanisms of liver cell necrosis. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer 1975:147-162.
  32. Sallie R, Tredger JM, Williams R. Drugs and the liver part 1: Testing liver function. Biopharm Drug Dispos 1991; 12(4): 251-259.
  33. Makhlouf R, Makhlouf I. Evaluation of the effect of spirulina against gamma irradiation induced oxidative stress and tissue injury in rats. Int J Appl Sci Eng Res 2012; 1(2): 152-164.
  34. Kafafy YA. Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E on gamma irradiation injury in rats. Egypt J Rad Sci Applic 2000; 13(2): 1727.
  35. Abdelhalim MAK, Moussa SAA. The biochemical changes in rats blood serum levels exposed to different gamma radiation doses. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 7(15):785-792.
  36. Halliwell B, Whiteman M. Measuring reactive species and oxidative damage in vivo and in cell culture: how should you do it and what do the results mean? Br Pharmacol 2004; 142(2): 231-255.
  37. Ramadan LA, Shouman SA, Sayed-Ahmed MM, et al. Modulation of radiation-induced organs toxicity by cremophorel in experimental animals. Pharmacol Res 2001; 43(2): 185-191.
  38. Nada AS. Modulating efficacy of rosemary extracts in rats exposed to oxidative stress. Egypt J Rad Sci Applic 2008;21(2):499-514.
  39. Navarro-Alarcon M, Cabrera-Vique C. Selenium in food and the human body: a review. Sci Total Environ 2008; 400(1-3): 115-141.