Document Type : Original Article


1 Clinic of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece

2 Faculty of Public and Integrated (One) Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece

3 Vet in Progress Plus, Veterinary Laboratories


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) double vaccination in weaning piglets reared for gilts under field conditions. The study was conducted at a Greek farrow-to-finish conventional pig farm with a previous history of PCV2 infections. The trial included 96 female piglets at 21 days of age, which were equally allocated to two different study groups. Piglets of the group-1 received a single PCV2 vaccination at 21 days of age, while piglets of the group-2 were double vaccinated against PCV2, at 21 and 42 days of age. The results indicated that the piglets of group-2 had better growth performance, as they showed higher body weight (BW) and average daily weight gain (ADWG). In addition, ELISA tests showed that the double- vaccinated piglets presented a better humoral response against PCV2, as higher levels of IgG antibodies were detected in them than the piglets of the group-1. In conclusion, the current results suggested that a double PCV2 vaccination of piglets, reared for gilts, on a PCV2-affected farm could lead to higher protection against the virus.


  1. Segalés J. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections: clinical signs, pathology and laboratory diagnosis. Virus Res 2012; 164(1-2): 10-19.
  2. Cybulski P, Woźniak A, Podgórska K, et al. Vaccination of sows against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in a sub-clinically infected herd does not impact reproductive performance. Agriculture 2020; 10(12): 639. doi: 10.3390/agriculture10120639
  3. Segalés J. Best practice and future challenges for vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2. Expert Rev Vaccines 2015; 14(3): 473-487.
  4. Johnson CS, Joo HS, Direksin K, et al. Experimental in utero inoculation of late-term swine fetuses with porcine circovirus type 2. J Vet Diagn Invest 2002; 14(6): 507-512.
  5. Kim J, Jung K, Chae C. Prevalence of porcine circovirus type 2 in aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets. Vet Rec 2004; 155(16): 489-492.
  6. Mateusen B, Maes DG, Van Soom A, et al. Effect of a porcine circovirus type 2 infection on embryos during early pregnancy. Theriogenology 2007; 68(6): 896-901.
  7. Afghah Z, Webb B, Meng XJ, et al. Ten years of PCV2 vaccines and vaccination: Is eradication a possibility? Vet Microbiol 2017; 206: 21-28.
  8. Feng H, Blanco G, Segalés J, et al. Can Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection be eradicated by mass vaccination? Vet Microbiol 2014; 172(1-2): 92-99.
  9. Figueras-Gourgues S, Fraile L, Segalés J, et al. Effect of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) maternally derived antibodies on performance and PCV-2 viremia in vaccinated piglets under field conditions. Porcine Health Manag 2019; 5: 21. doi: 10.1186/s40813-019-0128-7.
  10. Karuppannan AK, Opriessnig T. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines in the context of current molecular epidemiology. Viruses 2017; 9(5): 99. doi: 10.3390/ v9050099.
  11. Pejsak Z, Podgórska K, Truszczyński M, et al. Efficacy of different protocols of vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in a farm affected by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2010; 33(6): e1-e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2009.09.006.
  12. Segalés J, Urniza A, Alegre A, et al. A genetically engineered chimeric vaccine against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) improves clinical, pathological and virological outcomes in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome affected farms. Vaccine 2009; 27(52): 7313-7321.
  13. Tassis PD, Tsakmakidis I, Papatsiros VG, et al. A randomized controlled study on the efficacy of a novel combination vaccine against enzootic pneumonia (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in the presence of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity in pigs. BMC Vet Res 2017; 13(1): 91. doi: 10.1186/s12917-017-1014-7.
  14. Tzika E, Tassis PD, Koulialis D, et al. Field efficacy study of a novel ready-to-use vaccine against mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus type 2 in a Greek farm. Porcine Health Manag 2015; 1: 15. doi: 10.1186/s40813-015-0006-x.
  15. Dvorak CM, Yang Y, Haley C, et al. National reduction in porcine circovirus type 2 prevalence following introduction of vaccination. Vet Microbiol 2016; 189: 86-90.
  16. Alarcon P, Rushton J, Wieland B. Cost of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome and porcine circovirus type-2 subclinical infection in England - an economic disease model. Prev Vet Med 2013; 110(2): 88-102.
  17. Feng H, Segalés J, Fraile L, et al. Effect of high and low levels of maternally derived antibodies on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection dynamics and production parameters in PCV2 vaccinated pigs under field conditions. Vaccine 2016; 34(27): 3044-3050.
  18. Fraile L, Sibila M, Nofrarías M, et al. Effect of sow and piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on piglet mortality, viraemia, antibody titre and production parameters. Vet Microbiol 2012; 161(1-2): 229-234.
  19. Lyoo K, Joo H, Caldwell B, et al. Comparative efficacy of three commercial PCV2 vaccines in conventionally reared pigs. Vet J 2011; 189(1): 58-62.
  20. Oliver-Ferrando S, Segalés J, López-Soria S, et al. Evaluation of natural porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subclinical infection and seroconversion dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages. Vet Res 2016; 47: 121. doi:10.1186/s13567-016-0405-2.
  21. Woźniak A, Miłek D, Matyba P, et al. Real-time PCR detection patterns of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in Polish farms with different statuses of vaccination against PCV2. Viruses 2019; 11(12): 1135. doi: 10.3390/v11121135.
  22. Eddicks M, Koeppen M, Willi S, et al. Low prevalence of porcine circovirus type 2 infections in farrowing sows and corresponding pre-suckling piglets in southern German pig farms. Vet Microbiol 2016; 187: 70-74.
  23. Lopez-Rodriguez A, Dewulf J, Meyns T, et al. Effect of sow vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) on virological profiles in herds with or without PCV2 systemic disease. Can Vet J 2016; 57(6): 619-628.
  24. Lin CN, Ke NJ, Chiou MT. Cross-sectional study on the sero- and viral dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 in the field. Vaccines (Basel) 2020; 8(2): 339. doi: 10.3390/vaccines8020339.
  25. European Council-EC 2003. Directive 2003/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2003 amending Council Directive 86/609/EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States regarding the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. OJEU 2003; 230: 32-33.
  26. Federation of Animal Science Societies- FASS 2020. Guide for the care and use of agricultural animals in research and teaching. pdf?sfvrsn=56b44ed1_2. Accessed Oct 04, 2022.
  27. Holtkamp DJ, Polson DD, Torremorell M, et al. Terminology for classifying the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) status of swine herds. [German] Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2011; 39(2): 101-112.
  28. Yuan W, Li J, Li L, et al. Rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2 by TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 2014; 12(3): 214–220.
  29. Seo HW, Park C, Han K, et al. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on PCV2-viremic piglets after experimental PCV2 challenge. Vet Res 2014; 45(1): 13. doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-45-13.
  30. Core R Team 2021. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Αvailable at: http://www. Accessed Nov 20, 2022.
  31. Dixon WJ, Mood AM. The statistical sign test. J Am Stat Assoc 1946; 41(236): 557-566.
  32. Um H, Yang S, Oh T, et al. Comparative evaluation of growth performance between bivalent and trivalent vaccines containing porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in a herd with subclinical PCV2d infection and enzootic pneumonia. Vaccines (Basel) 2021; 9(5): 450. doi: 10.3390/ vaccines9050450.
  33. Yang S, Ahn Y, Oh T, et al. Field evaluation of a sing-dose bivalent vaccine of porcine circovirus type 2b and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Vet Med Sci 2021; 7(3): 755-765.
  34. López-Lorenzo G, Prieto A, López-Novo C, et al Efficacy of two commercial ready-to-use PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines under field conditions. Animals (Basel) 2021; 11(6): 1553. doi: 10.3390/ ani11061553.
  35. Jeong J, Kang HS, Park C, et al. Comparative efficacy of concurrent administration of a porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine plus a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine from two commercial sources in pigs challenged with both viruses. J Swine Health Prod 2016; 24(3): 130-141.
  36. Martelli P, Ferrari L, Morganti M, et al. One dose of a porcine circovirus 2 subunit vaccine induces humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects against porcine circovirus-associated disease under field conditions. Vet Microbiol 2011; 149(3-4): 339-351.
  37. Alarcon P, Rushton J, Nathues H, et al. Economic efficiency analysis of different strategies to control post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome and porcine circovirus type 2 subclinical infection in 3-weekly batch system farms. Prev Vet Med 2013; 110(2): 103-118.
  38. Kurmann J, Sydler T, Brugnera E, et al. Vaccination of dams increases antibody titer and improves growth parameters in finisher pigs subclinically infected with porcine circovirus type 2. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2011; 18(10): 1644-1649.
  39. da Silva N, Carriquiry A, O'Neill K, et al. Mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines used in piglets. Prev Vet Med 2014; 117(3-4): 413-424.
  40. Jeong J, Park C, Choi K, et al. Comparison of three commercial one-dose porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines in a herd with concurrent circulation of PCV2b and mutant PCV2b. Vet Microbiol 2015; 177(1-2): 43-52.
  41. Duivon D, Corrégé I, Hémonic A, et al. Field evaluation of piglet vaccination with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin as compared to a ready-to-use product including porcine circovirus 2 and M. hyopneumoniae in a conventional French farrow-to-finish farm. Porc Health Manag 2018; 4: 4. doi: 10.1186/s40813-017-0077-y.
  42. Hansen MS, Hjulsager CK, Bille-Hansen V, et al. Selection of method is crucial for the diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 associated reproductive failures. Vet Microbiol 2010; 144(1-2): 203-209.
  43. Segalés J. Current challenges of porcine circovirus 2 prevention and control. In proceedings: 25th Inter-national pig veterinary society congress. Chongqing, China 2018; 62-63.
  44. Dieste-Pérez L, van Nes A, van Maanen K, et al. The prevalence of PCV2 viremia in newborn piglets on four endemically infected Dutch sow farms is very low. Prev Vet Med 2018; 153: 42-46.