Document Type : Original Article
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
An internationally identified syndrome that leads to deaths between domestic and ornamental pigeons, particularly after racing is young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS). This study was conducted to determine the status of pigeon adenoviral infection and molecularly characterize the pigeon adenovirus in Ahvaz pigeons. Sixty stool samples of healthy pigeons (young pigeons and adult pigeons) and 60 stool samples of diseased pigeons (young and adults) with symptoms of lethargy, weight loss, crop stasis, vomiting and diarrhea were examined. Samples were screened for aviadenoviruses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and degenerated primers set to target the aviadenovirus polymerase (pol) gene were used which was designed in this study. Screening for pigeon adenovirus 1 (PiAdV-1) was performed using a primer pair that targeted the fiber gene of PiAdV-1. Out of 120 stool samples, six samples (5.00%) were positive for aviadenovirus. The results showed that independent from pigeons’ age status, 5.00 and 3.33% of sick and of healthy pigeons were positive for PiAdV-1, respectively. Genomic sequencing revealed that the viruses detected in Ahvaz pigeons belonged to the PiAdV-1 genotype. The results in pigeons revealed a 98.10 - 99.53% nucleotide similarity when compared to other strains of PiAdV-1 (TR/SKPA20, P18-05523-6 and strain IDA4) formerly deposited in GenBank® in Türkiye, Australia and The Netherlands. As far as the authors know, this was the first record of phylogenetic analysis of PiAdV-1 in Iran.
- Vereecken M, de Herdt P, Ducatelle R. Adenovirus infections in pigeons: A review. Avian Pathol 1998; 27(4): 333-338.
- Hess M, Prusas C, Monreal G. Growth analysis of adenoviruses isolated from pigeons in chicken cells and serological characterization of the isolates. Avian Pathol 1998; 27(2): 196-199.
- De Herdt P, Ducatelle R, Lepoudre C, et al. An epidemic of fatal hepatic necrosis of viral origin in racing pigeons (Columba livia). Avian Pathol 1995; 24(3):475-483.
- Paré JA, Brash ML, Hunter DB, et al. Observations on pigeon circovirus infection in Ontario. Can Vet J 1999; 40(9): 659-662.
- Raue R, Schmidt V, Freick M, et al. A disease complex associated with pigeon circovirus infection, young pigeon disease syndrome. Avian Pathol 2005; 34(5): 418-425.
- McFerran JB, McCracken RM, Connor TJ, et al. Isolation of viruses from clinical outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis. Avian Pathol 1976; 5(4): 315-324.
- Freick M, Müller H, Raue R. Rapid detection of pigeon herpesvirus, fowl adenovirus and pigeon circovirus in young racing pigeons by multiplex PCR. J Virol Methods 2008; 148(1-2): 226-231.
- Scullion FT, Scullion MG. Pathologic findings in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) with "young bird sickness". J Avian Med Surg 2007; 21(1): 1-7.
- Stenzel TA, Pestka D, Tykałowski B, et Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland. Vet Rec 2012; 171(22): 562-562
- Schmidt V, Schlömer J, Lüken C, et al. Experimental infection of domestic pigeons with pigeon circovirus. Avian Dis 2008; 52(3): 380-386.
- Raue R, Hafez HM, Hess M. A fiber gene-based polymerase chain reaction for specific detection of pigeon adenovirus. Avian Pathol 2002; 31(1): 95-99.
- Hess M, Prusas C, Vereecken M, et al. Isolation of fowl adenoviruses serotype 4 from pigeons with hepatic necrosis. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 1998; 111(4): 140-142.
- Teske L, Rubbenstroth D, Meixner M, et al. Identification of a novel aviadenovirus, designated pigeon adenovirus 2 in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Virus Res 2017; 227: 15-22.
- Marek A, Kaján GL, Kosiol C, et al. Complete genome sequences of pigeon adenovirus 1 and duck adenovirus 2 extend the number of species within the genus Aviadenovirus. Virology 2014; 462-463: 107-114.
- Sahindokuyucu I, Turkmen MB, Sumer T, et al. First detection and molecular characterisation of a pigeon aviadenovirus A and pigeon circovirus co-infection associated with Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS) in Turkish pigeons (Columba livia domestica). Vet Med Sci 2022; 8(1): 139-149.
- Agnihotri K, Smith C, Oakey J, et al. Pigeon adenovirus and pigeon torque teno virus associated with acute multifocal hepatic necrosis in pigeons in Queensland, Australia. Arch Virol 2021; 166(5): 1469-1475.
- Weissenbock H, Fuchs A. Histological and ultrastructural characterisation of hepatic intranuclear inclusion bodies in psittacine birds and pigeons. Avian Pathol 1995; 24(3): 507-521.
- Catroxo MHB, Martins AMCRPE, Petrella S, et al. Research of viral agent in free-living pigeon feces (Columba livia) in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, for transmission electron microscopy. Int J Morphol 2011; 29(2): 628-6
- Cowen B, Mitchell GB, Calnek BW. An adenovirus survey of poultry flocks during the growing and laying periods. Avian Dis 1978; 22(1): 115-121.
- McFerran JB, Smyth JA. Avian adenoviruses. Rev Sci Tech 2000; 19(2): 589-601.
- Wan C, Chen C, Cheng L, et al. Detection of novel adenovirus in sick pigeons. J Vet Med Sci 2018; 80(6): 1025-1028.
- Schonewille E, Singh A, Göbel TW, et al. Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) serotype 4 causes depletion of B and T cells in lymphoid organs in specific pathogen-free chickens following experimental infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2008; 121(1-2): 130-139.