Document Type : Original Article


1 Post-graduate of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


The effects of resveratrol as an anti-oxidant in improving growth and health have been shown in several experiments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different dietary resveratrol inclusion levels on digestive enzymes activity and serum biochemistry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Accordingly, 225 juvenile rainbow trout with an average body weight of 10.00 ± 1.50 g were stocked in nine experimental units. The study was performed as a completely randomized design including three dietary levels of resveratrol as follows: 0.00, 400 and 800 mg kg-1 feed. During the experiment, fish were fed based on their respective body weight using standard feeding tables at three feeding times for 8 weeks. Nine fish were randomly selected from each treatment at the end of the 4th and 8th weeks of the experiment. Results revealed that supplementing 800 mg kg-1 feed resveratrol significantly increased lipase activity (31.40 ± 0.32 U mg-1 protein) compared to the control group (29.92 ± 0.52 U mg-1 protein) at the end of week eight. Also, at the same time, it increased serum high-density lipoprotein (123.04 ± 1.57 mg dL-1) compared to the control group (97.055 ± 1.463 mg dL-1). In addition, dietary supplementation of 800 mg kg-1 feed resveratrol effectively reduced serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities along with glucose, cortisol and cholesterol. In conclusion, resveratrol can be used as a suitable food supplement to improve fish health by increasing digestive enzymes activities.


Main Subjects

  1. Terech-Majewska E, Siwicki AK, Hermańska S, et al. Influence of trans-resveratrol on macrophage and lymphocyte activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) – in vitro Cent Eur J Immunol 2018; 43(3): 241-247.
  2. Naderi Farsani M, Meshkini S, Manaffar R. Growth performance, immune response, antioxidant capacity and disease resistance against Yersinia ruckeri in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as influenced through singular or combined consumption of resveratrol and two‐strain probiotics. Aquacu Nutr 2021; 27(6): 2587-2599.
  3. Yousefi M, Hoseini SM, Vatnikov YA, et al. Rosemary leaf powder improved growth performance, immune and antioxidant parameters, and crowding stress responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Aquaculture 2019; 505: 473-480.
  4. Baharloei M, Heidari B, Zamani H, et al. Effects of heat shock protein inducer on Hsp70 gene expression and immune parameters during Streptococcus iniae infection in a Persian sturgeon fry. Vet Res Forum 2021; 12(4): 473-479.
  5. Amoushahi M, Salehnia M. Reactive oxygen species level, mitochondrial transcription factor A gene expression and succinate dehydrogenase activity in metaphase II oocytes derived from in vitro cultured vitrified mouse ovaries. Vet Res Forum 2018; 9(2): 145-152.
  6. Redza-Dutordoir M, Averill-Bates DA. Activation of apoptosis signalling pathways by reactive oxygen species. Biochim Biophys Acta 2016; 1863(12): 2977-2992.
  7. Tort L. Stress and immune modulation in fish. Dev Comp Immunol 2011; 35(12): 1366-1375.
  8. Dawood MA, Shukry M, Zayed MM, et al. Digestive enzymes, immunity and oxidative status of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in intensive conditions. Slov Vet Res 2019; 56(Suppl 22): 99-108.
  9. Mirghaed AT, Yarahmadi P, Hosseinifar SH, et al. The effects singular or combined administration of fermentable fiber and probiotic on mucosal immune parameters, digestive enzyme activity, gut microbiota and growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fingerlings. Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018; 77: 194-199.
  10. Wunderlich AC, Zica É de OP, Ayres VF dos S, et al. Plant-derived compounds as an alternative treatment against parasites in fish farming: a review. Natural remedies in the fight against parasites. InTech; 2017. doi: 10.5772/67668.
  11. Delmas D, Aires V, Limagne E, et al. Transport, stability, and biological activity of resveratrol. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2011; 1215: 48-59.
  12. Zhu L, Luo X, Jin Z. Effect of resveratrol on serum and liver lipid profile and antioxidant activity in hyperlipid-emia rats. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 2008; 21(6): 890-895.
  13. Muzzio M, Huang Z, Hu SC, et al. Determination of resveratrol and its sulfate and glucuronide metabolites in plasma by LC–MS/MS and their pharmacokinetics in dogs. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2012; 59: 201-208.
  14. Li X, Yao Y, Wang S, et al. Resveratrol relieves chlorothalonil-induced apoptosis and necroptosis through miR-15a/Bcl2-A20 axis in fish kidney cells. Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020; 107(Part B): 427-434.
  15. Porcacchia AS, Moreira GA, Andersen ML, et al. The use of resveratrol in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and cancer: a commentary on common targets. J Clin Sleep Med 2022; 18(1): 333-334.
  16. Tai YS, Ma YS, Chen CL, et al. Resveratrol analog 4-bromo-resveratrol inhibits gastric cancer stemness through the SIRT3-c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. Curr Issues Mol Biol 2021; 44(1): 63-72.
  17. Torno C, Staats S, Rimbach G, et al. Effects of resveratrol and genistein on nutrient digestibility and intestinal histopathology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 2018; 491: 114-120.
  18. King RE, Kent KD, Bomser JA. Resveratrol reduces oxidation and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibition. Chem Biol Interact 2005; 151(2): 143-149.
  19. Holloway AC, Keene JL, Noakes DG, et al. Effects of clove oil and MS‐222 on blood hormone profiles in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum. Aquacu Res 2004; 35(11): 1025-1030.
  20. Guénette SA, Uhland FC, Hélie P, et al. Pharmaco-kinetics of eugenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 2007; 266(1-4): 262-265.
  21. Bernfeld Amylases, α and β. Meth Enzymol 1955; 1: 149-158.
  22. Iijima N, Tanaka S, Ota Y. Purification and characterization of bile salt-activated lipase from the hepatopancreas of red sea bream, Pagrus major. Fish Physiol Biochem 1998; 18: 59-69.
  23. García-Carreño FL, Haard NF. Characterization of proteinase classes in langostilla (Pleuroncodes planipes) and crayfish (Pacifastacus astacus) extracts. J Food Biochem 1993; 17(2): 97-113.
  24. Chong AS.C, Hashim R, Chow-Yang L, et al. Partial characterization and activities of proteases from the digestive tract of discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciata). Aquaculture 2002; 203(3-4): 321-333.
  25. Borges, Scotti LV, Siqueira DR, et al. Hematologic and serum biochemical values for jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Fish Physiol Biochem 2004; 30: 21-25.
  26. Bradford A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976; 72: 248-254.
  27. Xia S, Zhao W, Li M, et al. Effects of dietary protein levels on the activity of the digestive enzyme of albino and normal Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Aquac Res 2018; 49(3): 1302-1309.
  28. Zeilab Sendijani R, Abedian Kenari A, Smiley AH, et al. The effect of extract from dill Anethum graveolens on the growth performance, body composition, immune system, and antioxidant system of rainbow trout. N Am J Aquac 2020; 82(2): 119-131.
  29. Bilen S, Altief TAS, Özdemir KY, et al. Effect of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) extract on growth performance, digestive and antioxidant enzyme activities, and immune responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiol Biochem 2020; 46(1): 471-481.
  30. Liu HP, Wen B, Chen ZZ, et al. Effects of dietary vitamin C and vitamin E on the growth, antioxidant defence and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile discus fish (Symphysodon haraldi). Aquac Nutr 2019; 25: 176-183.
  31. Sasikumar P, Lekshmy K, Sini S, et al. Isolation and characterization of resveratrol oligomers from the stem bark of Hopea ponga (Dennst.) Mabb. and their antidiabetic effect by modulation of digestive enzymes, protein glycation and glucose uptake in L6 myocytes. J Ethnopharmacol 2019; 236: 196-204.
  32. Rose PM, Saranya J, Eganathan P, et al. In vitro evaluation and comparison of antioxidant and anti-bacterial activities of leaf extracts of Hopea ponga (Dennst.) Mabberly. Int J Green Pharm 2013; 7: 177-181.
  33. Lin MH, Hung CF, Sung HC, et al. The bioactivities of resveratrol and its naturally occurring derivatives on skin. J Food Drug Anal 2021; 29(1): 15-38.
  34. Engwa GA. Free radicals and the role of plant phytochemicals as antioxidants against oxidative stress-related diseases. Phytochemicals: source of antioxidants and role in disease prevention. InTech; 2018. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.76719.
  35. Ghafarifarsani H, Hoseinifar SH, Adorian TJ, et al. The effects of combined inclusion of Malvae sylvestris, Origanum vulgare, and Allium hirtifolium boiss for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) diet: Growth performance, antioxidant defense, and immunological parameters. Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021; 119: 670-677.
  36. Adeli A, Shamloofar M, Akrami R. Dietary effect of Lemon Verbena (Aloysia triphylla) extract on growth performance, some haematological, biochemical, and non-specific immunity and stocking density challenge of rainbow trout juveniles (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Appl Anim Res 2021; 49(1): 382-390.
  37. Arinç E, Yilmaz D, Bozcaarmutlu A. Mechanism of inhibition of CYP1A1 and glutathione S-transferase activities in fish liver by quercetin, resveratrol, naringenin, hesperidin, and rutin. NutrCancer 2015; 67(1): 137-144.
  38. Singh CK, George J, Ahmad N. Resveratrol-based combinatorial strategies for cancer management. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013; 1290(1): 113-121.
  39. Wu SL, Sun ZJ, Yu L, et al. Effect of resveratrol and in combination with 5-FU on murine liver cancer. World J Gastroenterol 2004; 10(20): 3048-3052.
  40. Alfonso S, Gesto M, Sadoul B. Temperature increase and its effects on fish stress physiology in the context of global warming. J Fish Biol 2021; 98(6): 1496-1508.
  41. Sierksma A, Patel H, Ouchi N, et al. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care 2004; 27(1): 184-189.
  42. Pischon T, Girman CJ, Rifai N, et al. Association between dietary factors and plasma adiponectin concentrations in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81(4): 780-786.
  43. Ghaedi E, Moradi S, Aslani Z, et al. Effects of grape products on blood lipids: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Food Funct 2019; 10(10): 6399-6416.
  44. Nihei T, Miura Y, Yagasaki K. Inhibitory effect of resveratrol on proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia in nephritic rats. Life Sci 2001; 68(25): 2845-2852.