Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Siences, Isiamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan, Iran

2 Department of Livestock Bacterial Diseases Research, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

3 Reference Laboratory of Bovine Tuberculosis, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

4 Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.



Glanders caused by Burkholderia mallei is one of the most dangerous zoonotic diseases in solipeds. Clinical diagnosis of this disease in its early stages in horses, is difficult. This study investigated serological and molecular identification of B. mallei in East Azerbaijan province. In the third and fourth quarters of 2020, throughout 2021, and in the first and second quarters of 2022, the complement fixation test (CFT) was performed on 350 horses. The malleination was used to confirm the positive CFT cases. Blood samples were taken for culture and for preparing serums to perform the ELISA. Deep eye discharge, nostril, cutaneous ulcers, and lymph fluid swabs were cultured, and finally, PCR was carried out. Eleven (3.14%) horses were CFT-positive. Based on the malleination on these 11 horses, six (1.7%) were affected by glanders, five (1.42%) were not affected (false positive), and one horse (0.28%) was CFT-negative despite exhibiting clinical signs. It was positive by malleination, ELISA, and PCR. A total of seven positive cases of glanders were diagnosed. B. mallei could not be isolated, but the B. cepacia complex was isolated in one case. Except for three cases (14.28%), the results of the CFT, mallein, and ELISA tests were consistent (71.42%). The amount of confidence interval (CI) was 95%. It is suggested that ELISA be used as a complement to CFT in screening and, if positive results are observed in one of the tests, the entire herd be examined more accurately using the mallein and western blot confirmatory tests.


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