Document Type : Clinical Report


1 Dean of Primer Diagnostic Laboratory, Baneh, Iran‎

2 Private Veterinary Practitioner, Baneh, Iran‎

3 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran‎

4 Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Various species of Trypanosoma parasites are known to infect several wild and domestic animals worldwide. A 7-year-old Holstein cow from Baneh, Kurdistan province, was examined by a private veterinarian due to anorexia and depression. Physical examination revealed fever, enlarged subscapular lymph node, and pale mucosa. Blood samples were taken for hemato-logical, parasitological, and PCR examination. The large Trypanosoma spp. was microscopically observed in a stained blood smear. Decreased red blood cells (RBCs) count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration were observed through complete blood cell count. Nucleated RBCs were also found in this case. Species-specific PCR assay confirmed T. theileri infection. Treatment was performed subcutaneously with diminazene aceturate. The clinical signs were improved after two days. Two-month follow-up showed no recurrence. In conclusion, T. theileri is characterized by anemia and pyrexia in a cow. To our knowledge, the present case report describes the first molecular evidence of T. theileri in Kurdistan, West of Iran.



    1. Votýpka J, d'Avila-Levy CM, Grellier P, et al. New approaches to systematics of Trypanosomatidae: Criteria for taxonomic (re) description. Trends Parasitol 2015; 31(10): 460-469.
    2. Reichenow E. East African observations on trypanosomids. Arch Protistenk 1940; 94: 267-287.
    3. Böse R, Heister NC. Development of Trypanosoma (M.) theileri in tabanids. J Eukaryot Microbiol 1993; 40(6): 788-792.
    4. Sood NK, Singla LD, Singh RS, et al. Association of Trypanosoma theileri with peritonitis in a pregnant cross-bred cow: A case report. Vet Med 2011; 56(2): 82-84.
    5. Villa A, Gutierrez C, Gracia E, et al. Presence of Trypanosoma theileri in Spanish cattle. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008; 1149: 352-354.
    6. Fölsch DW. Simplified, contamination-free, cultural demonstration of Trypanosoma theileri (Laveran, 1902) in cattle blood in North Germany. Isolation and culture. Acta Trop1971;28(2):170-174.
    7. Polidori GA, Grelloni V, Moretti A, et al. Trypanosoma theileri infection in cattle in central Italy. Atti Soc Ital Sci Vet 1982; 36:650-652.
    8. Greco A, Loria GR, Dara S, et al. First isolation of Trypanosoma theileri in Sicilian cattle. Vet Res Commun 2000; 24(7):471-475.
    9. Doherty ML, Windle H, Voorheis HP, et al. Clinical disease associated with Trypanosoma theileri infection in a calf in Ireland. Vet Rec 1993;132(26):653-656.
    10. Desquesnes M, McLaughlin G, Zoungrana A, et al. Detection and identification of Trypanosoma of African livestock through a single PCR based on internal transcribed spacer 1 of rDNA. Int J Parasitol 2001; 31(5-6): 610-614.
    11. Kaufmann J. Parasitic infections of domestic animals: A diagnostic manual. 1st ed. Berlin, Germany: Birkhäuser 1996; 61-62.
    12. Yokoyama N, Sivakumar T, Fukushi S, et al. Genetic diversity in Trypanosoma theileri from Sri Lankan cattle and water buffaloes. Vet Parasitol 2015; 207(3-4): 335-341.
    13. Blood DC. Pocket companion to veterinary medicine. 8th ed. London, UK: WB Saunders 1997; 484.
    14. Niak A. The incidence of Trypanosoma theileri among cattle in Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod 1978; 10(1): 26-27.
    15. Seifi HA. Clinical trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma theileri in a cow in Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod 1995; 27(2): 93-94.
    16. Luckins AG, Gray AR. Trypanosomes in the lymph nodes of cattle and sheep infected with Trypanosoma congolaise. Res Vet Sci 1979; 27(1): 129-131.