Document Type : Original Article
- Berjan Demirtas 1
- Karolin Yanar 2
- Lora Koenhemsi 3
- Nurcan Erozkan Dusak 4
- Ozlem Guzel 5
- Alev Akdogan Kaymaz 3
1 Department of Plant and Animal Production, Equine and Training Program, Vocational School of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Türkiye
2 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Türkiye
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Türkiye
4 Central Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Türkiye
5 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Türkiye
This study was aimed to assess oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and some trace elements in healthy pet cats exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Forty healthy cats were included in this study. Cats were divided in two groups: Exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS; n = 20) and non-exposed to tobacco smoke (NETS; n = 20). Blood levels of cotinine, total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), protein carbonyl (PCO), advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP), total antioxidant status (TAS), copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), total thiol (T-SH), interferon gamma (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se) levels were measured. Hematological and biochemical parameters were also measured. Serum cotinine, TOS, OSI, PCO, AOPP and LOOH levels were higher, whereas TAS and Cu, Zn-SOD levels were lower in ETS group. In ETS group INF-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 levels were higher. The Cu level was higher in ETS group. Blood reticulocyte number, serum creatinine and glucose were higher in ETS group. It could be concluded that exposure to tobacco smoke in cats impaired the oxidant/antioxidant balance and potentially triggered the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
- Cao S, Yang C, Gan Y, et al. The health effects of passive smoking: an overview of systematic reviews based on observational epidemiological evidence. PloS One 2015; 10(10): e0139907. doi:10.1371/journal. pone. 0139907.
- Smith V, Knottenbelt C, Watson D, et al. Hair nicotine concentration of cats with gastrointestinal lymphoma and unaffected control cases. Vet Rec 2020; 186(13): 414. doi: 10.1136/vr.105564.
- Gervásio ML, Almeida M, Lima BD, et al. Influence of environmental tobacco smoke on the etiology of lymphoma in domestic cats. Pubvet 2021; 15(9): 1-7
- Kahraman FU, Torun E, Osmanoğlu NK, et al. Serum oxidative stress parameters and paraoxonase‐1 in children and adolescents exposed to passive smoking. Pediatr Int 2017; 59(1): 68-73.
- Argalasova L, Zitnanova I, Vondrova D, et al. Self-reported exposure to ETS (Environmental tobacco smoke), urinary cotinine, and oxidative stress parameters in pregnant women-The pilot study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019; 16(9): 1656. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16091656.
- Truong VL, Jun M, Jeong WS. Role of resveratrol in regulation of cellular defense systems against oxidative stress. Biofactors 2018; 44(1): 36-49.
- Yanar K, Çakatay U, Aydın S. How various concentrations of nutrients affect basal redox homeostasis of fruit flies according to gender and aging. J Food Biochem 2019; 43(12): e13103. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.13103.
- Karademirci M, Kutlu R, Kilinc I. Relationship between smoking and total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, vit C, vit E. Clin Respir J 2018; 12(6): 2006-2012.
- Erel O. A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status. Clin Biochem 2005; 38(12): 1103-1111.
- Chiba M, Masironi R. Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Bull World Health Organ 1992; 70(2): 269-275.
- Wołonciej M, Milewska E, Roszkowska-Jakimiec W. Trace elements as an activator of antioxidant enzymes. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2016; 70(0): 1483-1498.
- Arnson Y, Shoenfeld Y, Amital H. Effects of tobacco smoke on immunity, inflammation and autoimmunity. J Autoimmun 2010; 34(3): J258-J265.
- Gomaa HA, El Shafie MF, Mohamed KY. Cigarette smoking provoked proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in healthy smokers. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2016; 8(6): 578-582.
- McNiel EA, Carmella SG, Heath LA, et al. Urinary biomarkers to assess exposure of cats to environmental tobacco smoke. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68(4): 349-353.
- Oshina I, Spigulis J. Beer-Lambert law for optical tissue diagnostics: current state of the art and the main limitations. J Biomed Opt 2021; 26(10): 100901. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.26.10.100901.
- Woff SP. Ferrous ion oxidation in presence of ferric ion indicator xylenol orange for the measurement of hydroperoxide. Meth Enzymol 1994; 233: 182-189.
- Reznick AZ, Packer L. Oxidative damage to proteins: spectrophotometric method for carbonyl assay. Meth Enzymol 1994; 233: 357-363.
- Hanasand M, Omdal R, Norheim KB, et al. Improved detection of advanced oxidation protein products in plasma. Clin Chim Acta 2012; 413(9-10): 901-906.
- Sun Y, Oberley LW, Li Y. A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase. Clin Chem 1988; 34(3): 497-500.
- Yasmineh WG, Kaur TP, Blazar BR, et al. Serum catalase as marker of graft-vs-host disease in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients: pilot study. Clin Chem 1995; 41(11): 1574-1580.
- Sedlak J, Lindsay RH. Estimation of total, protein-bound, and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups in tissue with Ellman's reagent. Anal Biochem 1968; 25(1): 192-205.
- Bertone-Johnson ER, Procter-Gray E, Gollenberg AL, et al. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level. Environ Res 2008; 106(3): 361-364.
- Mourino N, Pérez-Ríos M, Santiago-Pérez MI, et al. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among children under 5 years old: questionnaires versus cotinine biomarkers: a cohort study. BMJ Open 2021; 11: e044829. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044829.
- Yıldırım F, Sermetow K, Aycicek A, et al. Increased oxidative stress in preschool children exposed to passive smoking. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2011; 87(6): 523-528.
- Aycicek A, Varma M, Ahmet K, et al. Maternal active or passive smoking causes oxidative stress in placental tissue. Eur J Pediatr 2011; 170(5): 645-651.
- Fayol L, Gulian JM, Dalmasso C, et al. Antioxidant status of neonates exposed in utero to tobacco smoke. Biol Neonate 2005; 87(2): 121-126.
- Erdem Guzel E, Kaya N, Tektemur A, et al. Chronic effects of maternal tobacco-smoke exposure and/or α-lipoic acid treatment on reproductive parameters in female rat offspring. Syst Biol Reprod Med 2020; 66(6): 387-399.
- Reckziegel P, Boufleur N, Barcelos RC, et al. Oxidative stress and anxiety-like symptoms related to withdrawal of passive cigarette smoke in mice: beneficial effects of pecan nut shells extract, a by-product of the nut industry. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2011; 74(6): 1770-1778.
- Aycicek A. Tobacco smoking and oxidative stress in pregnancy. In: Dennery PA, Buonocore G, Saugstad OD (Eds). Perinatal and prenatal disorders oxidative stress in applied basic research and clinical practice. Newyork, USA: Humana Press 2014; 81-93.
- Westbrook DG, Anderson PG, Pinkerton KE, et al. Perinatal tobacco smoke exposure increases vascular oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in non-human primates. Cardiovasc Toxicol 2010;10(3): 216-226.
- Rua Ede A, Porto ML, Ramos JP, et al. Effects of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on oxidative stress in the umbilical cord and mononuclear blood cells of neonates. J Biomed Sci 2014; 21(1): 105. doi: 10.1186/ s12929-014-0105-z.
- Hu JP, ZhaoXP, Ma XZ, et al. Effects of cigarette smoke on aerobic capacity and serum MDA content and SOD activity of animal. Int J Clin Exp 2014; 7(11): 4461-4465.
- Pizent A, Lazarus M, Kovačić J, et al. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy: effects on antioxidant enzymes, metallothionein and trace elements in mother-newborn pairs. Biomolecules 2020; 10(6): 892. doi: 10.3390/biom10060892.
- Torun E, Kahraman FU, Goksu AZ, et al. Serum catalase, thiol and myeloperoxidase levels in children passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Ital J Pediatr 2019; 45(1): 59. doi: 10.1186/s13052-019-0652-8.
- Bernhard D, Rossmann A, Wick G. Metals in cigarette smoke. IUBMB Life 2005; 57(12): 805-809.
- Ergen K, Yildiz F, Özcan M, et al. Effects of cigarette smoke on tissue trace element concentration of rats exposed to second-hand smoke. Med Sci 2012; 1(1): 1-12.
- Serdar MA, Akin BS, Razi C, et al. The correlation between smoking status of family members and concentrations of toxic trace elements in the hair of children. Biol Trace Elem Res 2012; 148(1): 11-17.
- Protano C, Astolfi ML, Canepari S, et al. Urinary levels of trace elements among primary school-aged children from Italy: The contribution of smoking habits of family members. Sci Total Environ 2016; 557-558: 378-385.
- Caliri AW, Tommasi S, Besaratinia A. Relationships among smoking, oxidative stress, inflammation, macromolecular damage, and cancer. Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 2021; 787: 108365: doi: 10.1016/ j.mrrev. 2021.108365.
- Ge S, Ye P, Li GY, et al. Effects of active and passive smoking on salivary cytokines levels in rats: A pilot study. Toxicol Ind Health 2019; 35(2): 109-118.
- Wilson KM, Wesgate SC, Pier J, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cytokine levels in healthy children. Cytokines 2012; 60(1): 34-37.
- Shakhanbeh JM. Effect of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure on hematological characteristics in adult rat offspring. Jordan J Biol Sci 2016; 9(3): 179-183.
- Arro CF, Magpantay MF, Rubico AK, et al. Evaluation of blood cell count and red cell indices of active and secondhand smokers in association with the degree of smoking. LPU-St. Cabrini J Allied Med 2019; 3(2): 12-22.
- Jayasuriya NA, Kjaergaard AD, Pedersen KM, et al. Smoking, blood cells and myeloproliferative neoplasms: meta‐analysis and Mendelian randomization of 2.3 million people. Br J Hematol 2020; 189(2): 323-334.
- Leonberg-Yoo AK, Rudnick MR. Tobacco use: a chronic kidney disease accelerant. Am J Nephrol 2017; 46(4): 257-259.
- Jhee JH, Joo YS, Kee YK, et al. Secondhand smoke and CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2019; 14(4): 515-522.
- Kuwahara Y, Ohba Y, Kitoh K, et al. Association of laboratory data and death within one month in cats with chronic renal failure. J Small Anim Pract 2006; 47(8): 446-450.
- Kim D, Choy YS, Park EC. Association between second- hand smoke and glycemic control in adult diabetes patients. Prev Med 2017; 94: 48-54.
- Wei X, E M, Yu S. A meta-analysis of passive smoking and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2015; 107(1): 9-14.
- Rombi AV, Lopes JB, Ortiz BL, et al. Probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics attenuate chronic effects of passive smoking on physiological and biochemical parameters in rats: A randomized and controlled study. Res Soc Dev 2021; 10(8): e26510817203. doi: 10. 33448/rsd-v10i8.17203.